Category Archives: Science problem and hypothesis statements

如何參與視訊會議 / 如何批判研究合作者的工作: 研究生英文投稿日報 11/3/2013

研究生英文投稿日報:

* 如何參與視訊會議 (PART A)

* 如何批判研究合作者的工作 (PART B)

* 助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (294)

* 訪問時間或行程之更改 (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (2 of 2)

* 科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (25) (下)

Academic publishing news 學術出版新聞

如何參與視訊會議 (PART A)

* 練習會使用到的技術。

* 安排在每個站點有技術支持。

* 整理房間,以鼓勵參與。

– 排列的椅子讓他們面對顯示器和相機。

– 每個人都應該靠近自己的麥克風。

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 73 )

如何批判研究合作者的工作 (PART B)

* 談論文件,而不是作者。

– 粗魯:“你不解釋清楚為什麼這個標準會和主題有關。”

– 較好:“我不知道如何理解這個標準會涉及到主題。”

– 粗魯:“你為什麼不寫比較性的討論就如你先前保證你會做的?”

– 更好:“我想這個報告會變得更強有力如果我們在這裡可以和其他文件做比較。”

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 67 )

助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (294)
阿沃•帕特(愛沙尼亞語:Arvo Pärt,1935年9月11日-)出生於愛沙尼亞派德,是20世紀的愛沙尼亞作曲家。他的作品以合唱聖樂最為人所知。「神聖簡約主義」的主要作曲家之一。

訪問時間或行程之更改 (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (2 of 2)

技術對應的實例:

I have received your letter dated March 29 regarding a technical visit by two UCL staff members to your esteemed company. Acknowledge the arrangements already made for the technical visit. Thank you for the arrangements you have made so far.

However, the week of May 17-24 is not quite appropriate for my staff because they have prior committments.

I was wondering whether the week of May 10-17 would be acceptable to you. If so, Mr. Lin and Mr. Wu can schedule their flight to arrive in Melbourne on May 8. Could you please provide them with an itinerary so as to process their foreign visit applications?

I look forward to your prompt reply.

科學英文假設描述 (25) (下)

* 科學目標 : 科學提案的目標 ?

* 達成目標的方法 : 你的計劃中達成目標的步驟?

* 希望的結果 : 希望的結果你希望達成的結果?

* 領域的貢獻 : 你的提案對相關科學領域的貢獻?

科學英文假設描述

科學計劃目標 A novel formulation involving the use of Chinese herbal medicine can be developed to replace that of the widely used South African herbal medicine. 達成目標的方法 To do so, Chinese herbal medicine can be analyzed to suppress gram (-) bacteria. Cell culturing method is then adopted to understand why Chinese herbal medicine does not have negative side effects. Next, GC and HPLC methods can be used to understand the adaptability of incorporating compounds of Chinese medicine in shampoo. The proposed formulation can enable five varieties of Chinese herbal medicine to achieve a better outcome than South African herbal medicine can in terms of suppressing gram (-) bacteria. 希望的結果 As anticipated, analysis results can indicate that , while traditional South African herbs can restrain the microorganism effect with a success rate of 90% upwards, Chinese herbs have the same success rate of 99% upwards. This quality makes Chinese herbs highly promising for efforts to restrain microorganisms and achieve safe testing, implying safe production and substantial product revenues. The ability to suppress germs would enable use of flow cytometer examination PGE2 to understand its anti-oxidation activity, thus making Chinese herb medicine highly promising for several commercial applications, including treatment for athlete’s foot and the skin of head tinea owing to its ability to effectively suppress fungi, as well as treatment of external injuries owing to its ability as a disinfectant of germs. 領域的貢獻 In addition to providing a valuable reference for Chinese herbal medicine research, the proposed formulation can provide local healthcare product manufacturers with a viable alternative to developing shampoos. Its desirable features of effectively suppressing both fungi and fungi owing to its anti-oxidation capability further increase its commercial potential. (NOTE : Add 2 sentences that describe more thoroughly how the proposed method contributes to a particular field or sector)

Source: 有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

密集課程 (柯泰德): Organizing Technical Research Papers(科技研究論文組織寫作)

密集課程 (柯泰德):Developing Copyediting Skills(英文編修訓練)

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

如何批判研究合作者的工作 / 如何設置研究小組議程 : 研究生英文投稿日報 11/2/2013

研究生英文投稿日報:

* 如何批判研究合作者的工作 (PART A)

* 如何設置研究小組議程 (PART C)

* 助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (293)

* 訪問時間或行程之更改 (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (1 of 2)

* 科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (25) (上)

Academic publishing news 學術出版新聞

如何批判研究合作者的工作 (PART A)

* 開始積極評價,如“你顯然完成大量的工作”或“這是一個很好的開始。”

* 先討論較大的問題,如著眼於組織,開發,邏輯,設計和圖形。

* 再者解決較小的問題,如強調段落發展,尷尬的句子和單詞選擇。

* 編輯和校對直到過程結束。

* 談論文件,而不是作者。

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 67 )

如何設置研究小組議程 (PART C)

* 建立富有成效的研究小組衝突解決程序。

* 創建一個樣式表,定義你的研究論文或技術文件的寫作風格。

* 制定一個工作時間表。

* 制定評估方法。

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 62 )

助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (293)
阿沃•帕特(愛沙尼亞語:Arvo Pärt,1935年9月11日-)出生於愛沙尼亞派德,是20世紀的愛沙尼亞作曲家。他的作品以合唱聖樂最為人所知。「神聖簡約主義」的主要作曲家之一。

訪問時間或行程之更改 (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (1 of 2)

技術對應的實例:

Thank you for your fax dated November 16. Acknowledge the arrangements already made for the technical visit Much appreciation goes out to Mr. Smith for his help in arranging our visiting schedule.

After discussing this matter among our colleagues, however, we have decided not to extend our tour to include Germany since there is not enough time to obtain our German visas or to allow Dr. Jones to schedule a visit that would fit Mr. Smith’s schedule.

Could you arrange for us to visit some local industrial heat pump system manufacturers to fill in the open day on our visiting schedule? Compressor system companies that manufacture systems for heat pumps or vapor recompression would be equally well suited to our visiting purposes. Information regarding the variety of available heat pump systems would be quite useful for our future promotion of such systems.

The time for our trip is drawing nearer, and we need to know a convenient time for us to visit during the morning of the 7th? I understand that at this time you may not be able to finalize our visiting schedule at this point but, can you provide us with a tentative schedule that we can report to our superiors?

Thanks in advance for the arrangements you have already made. I hope that these last minute changes do not create too much of an inconvenience.

科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (25) (上)

* 科學提案建構 : 你科學提案的主題是什麼? 你的讀者可以明瞭科學提案的內容嗎?

* 科學問題 : 你的科學提案裡有你試著要解決或是想更進一步瞭解的問題嗎?

* 科學問題的量化 : 你要如何量化問題來讓你的讀者明白之前文獻研究所遇到的量化限制 ?

* 科學問題的中心 : 如果問題沒被解決或是充分瞭解, 這對科學提案的讀者會有多大的負面衝擊?

* 科學計劃需求 : 根據以上問題,最迫切的計劃需求是什麼?

科學英文科學問題描述

科學計劃建構 Consumers demand shampoos with natural ingredients and without any harmful side effects. Manufacturers normally select natural plant additives and attempt to reduce the chemical composition of such additives. This combination often implies a relatively high retail price of shampoos. 科學計劃問題 Although traditional herbs from South Africa are frequently used in shampoo, the use of China herbs in shampoo has received little attention. Chinese herbs often depend on the use of fine trauma medicines. Although non-toxic and mild, Chinese herbs are seldom used in commodities such as shampoo. Certainly commercial applications of Chinese herbal medicine still have many limitations, e.g., whether one ingredient has a particular effect, whether valid ingredients can be extracted purely, or whether the usefulness of the ingredient is depleted during the purification process, these problems. These issues require further study. While Chinese herbal medicine has been extensively studied for its oxidation ability to repress cancer cells, its potential applications for external treatment such as in shampoos has seldom been addressed. 科學計劃問題的量化 In addition to numerous investigations, Chinese herbal medicine can be found in many commercial products. However, with the growing market in pharmaceutical drugs and the health foods sector, Chinese herbal medicine has many attractive features, e.g., anti- oxidation capability, suppression of fungi, anti-cancer capabilities, toxicity analysis, and analysis of particular ingredients for research purposes. 科學計劃問題的中心 Despite the extensive study of herbal medicine for therapeutic treatment purposes that has yielded excellent results with respect to antimicrobial activity of herbal plants, Chinese herbal medicine has seldom been studied with respect to its toxicity levels and potential industrial applications. 科學計劃需求 Therefore, a novel formulation involving the use of Chinese herbal medicine must be developed to replace that of the widely used South African herbal medicine.

Source: 有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

密集課程 (柯泰德): Organizing Technical Research Papers(科技研究論文組織寫作)

密集課程 (柯泰德):Developing Copyediting Skills(英文編修訓練)

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

研究小組討論會議中如何有效聆聽 / 有效地管理你的研究計劃 : 研究生英文投稿日報 10/30/2013

研究生英文投稿日報:

* 研究小組討論會議中如何有效聆聽

* 有效地管理你的研究計劃 (PART B)

* 助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (290)

* 討論主題說明 (國外訪問)) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (2 of 2)

* 科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (24) (下)

Academic publishing news 學術出版新聞

研究小組討論會議中如何有效聆聽

* 注意發言者:不要讓你的心靈徜徉。

* 主要思路:聽重要信息訊號,如“What I’m saying is . . . “ 或 “The point I’m trying to make is. . . “。

* 對發言者的想法不要投入個人感情。

– 即使你不同意,繼續聽。保持開放的心態。

– 持續地聽,你可以計劃你接下來要說的內容。

* 提問及澄清發言者內容。

* 提供適當的反饋。

– 注視發言者的眼睛。你了解發言者所說內容應點頭回應。

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 61 )

有效地管理你的研究計劃 (PART B)

* 創建和維護一個準確的時間表。

– 更新您的日程安排。

– 把更新後的時間表日程發送到每一個團隊成員。

* 把你的決定以書面形式呈現。

– 如果出現問題,團隊可以輕鬆地參考文件,如有必要可以更新內容。

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 60 )

助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (290)
阿沃•帕特(愛沙尼亞語:Arvo Pärt,1935年9月11日-)出生於愛沙尼亞派德,是20世紀的愛沙尼亞作曲家。他的作品以合唱聖樂最為人所知。「神聖簡約主義」的主要作曲家之一。

討論主題說明 (國外訪問)) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (2 of 2)

技術對應的實例:

I am a Senior Researcher at Union Chemical Laboratories, ITRI. My expertise is in the area of catalyst development.

My colleague Mr. Chen and I will be attending the 1993 North American Meeting of the Cayalysis Society to be held in Pittsburgh. While we are in America, we would like to take the opportunity to visit the ABC Research Center in San Francisco on May 7 (Following the meeting, we will fly directly to San Francisco). We would appreciate it if you could arrange a visiting program for us.

We would like to discuss the following topics:
1. The function of ABC’s software in catalysis application.
2. The performance of ABC software in Zeolite analysis and how to use the software.
3. ABC software analysis of organometallics.
4. How to use your software to estimate the layer distance of pillaring clays.

Please let me know if it is convenient for us to visit on May 7. If so, could you arrange for a our of your facilities? I am looking forward to hearing from you.

科學英文假設描述 (24) (下)

* 科學目標 : 科學提案的目標 ?

* 達成目標的方法 : 你的計劃中達成目標的步驟?

* 希望的結果 : 希望的結果你希望達成的結果?

* 領域的貢獻 : 你的提案對相關科學領域的貢獻?

科學英文假設描述

科學計劃目標 TNF-α and NF-κB of the RAW 264.7 cell can be analyzed by using cell culture methods, subsequently providing insight into how the cell signal pathway and immunity regulation of nitro oxide in cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium poolare related. TNF-α,NF-κB and MAPK can also be determined to be closely associated with the signal pathways of both human diseases such as cancer. 達成目標的方法 To do so, the RAW 264.7 cell can be analyzed using Griess reagent (1% Sulfanilamide, 0.1% NED) and chemiluminescence. The PKC protein can then be analyzed using western blot analysis. Next, NF-κB and MAPK can be analyzed using primary and secondary antibodies. Additionally, the mouse fibroblasts can be used by adding L929 to serial dilutions of the conditioned media at 5×104 cells per well (in 96-well plates), followed by treatment with 1 μg/ml actinomycin D. Moreover, after 24 h of treatment, the viability of cells can be measured by MTT assay. Finally, a standard curve can be defined using TNF-α. 希望的結果 As anticipated, analysis results can indicate that the TNF-α,NF-κB and MAPK can be found in the RAW 264.7 cell of the cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pool signal pathway. Additionally, this pathway can be understood with respect to elucidating the characteristics of cancer. 領域的貢獻 Results of this study can provide further insight into not only the signal pathways of intracellular TNF-α, NF-γB, and MAPK, but also the role in which ER calicium pool and induced cytokine play in the RAW 264.7 cell. (NOTE : Add 2-4 more sentences that describe more thoroughly how the proposed method contributes to a particular field or sector)

Source: 有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

密集課程 (柯泰德): Organizing Technical Research Papers(科技研究論文組織寫作)

密集課程 (柯泰德):Developing Copyediting Skills(英文編修訓練)

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

有效地管理你的研究計劃 / 研究論文和技術文檔協同寫作的優點 : 研究生英文投稿日報 10/29/2013

研究生英文投稿日報:

* 有效地管理你的研究計劃 (PART A)

* 研究論文和技術文檔協同寫作的優點 (PART B)

* 助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (289)

* 討論主題說明 (國外訪問)) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (1 of 2)

* 科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (24) (上)

Academic publishing news 學術出版新聞

有效地管理你的研究計劃 (PART A)

* 打破一個大項目分成幾個小任務。

– 分區項目納入其主要部分。

– 列出你的團隊必須完成的項目清單。

* 計劃項目。

* 創建和維護一個準確的時間表。

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 60 )

研究論文和技術文檔協同寫作的優點 (PART B)

* 協同寫作教新員工如何和研究機構中他人合作。

* 協同寫作激勵員工以幫助企業成長。

– 新員工帶來了新的技能,知識和態度,可以幫助組織成長。

– 經驗豐富的員工成為新員工的導師。

– 每個人都是他人的教導者和學習者。

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 58 )

助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (289)
阿沃•帕特(愛沙尼亞語:Arvo Pärt,1935年9月11日-)出生於愛沙尼亞派德,是20世紀的愛沙尼亞作曲家。他的作品以合唱聖樂最為人所知。「神聖簡約主義」的主要作曲家之一。

討論主題說明 (國外訪問)) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (1 of 2)

技術對應的實例:

Thank you for allowing us to visit to ABC Corporation. Dr. Chang, Mr. Lin and myself would like to thank you in advance for meeting us at the Novotel (Europa BLVD 10, NL-1083 AD, Tel: 20-54111-23) at 9:00 on August 28.

As stated in our fax dated July 29, we would like to visit your LBR test unit and the ABC Treatment Plant-Apeldoorn, as well as discuss the details of our cooperative agreement. Specific questions so that their company can prepare in advance We thought that it would be a good idea to pose the following questions before the August 28 discussion, to allow you time to prepare your responses:

1. Since it is quite expensive, in Taiwan, to drill a 1225m deephole in Taiwan, would it be possible to instead drill a 600m deephole with an additional pressure of 60 Kg/cm on the ground surface to meet the 1225m vertical pressure?
2. The periodic operation for ABC Treatment Systems takes approximately 168/hrs per week (143 hrs for operation, 25 hrs for start-up, maintenance and clean-up). Can the operation period be extended? If not, is a batch operation performed each week?
3. The operating pressure of the ABC Treatment System ranges from 1250-1617 psi. We wonder how the operating pressure is determined?
4. What is the oxygen content of the discharged gas after treatment? Is this amount of oxygen worth recovering? What is the temperature of the steam generated by the cooling water or the heat exchanger? Is it worth recovering the heat?
5. Could ABC provide more detailed information on cost analysis for our plant’s future reference?
6. Was geology a concern when ABC designed the ABC Treatment System?
7. Because of the small piping and valving on the LBR, samples containing solids must be macerated and sieved to produce a particle size less than 0.32cm. How did you achieve that and how did you measure particle sizes less than 0.32 cm?
8. The ABC Treatment Plant generates 2280 tons of dried sludge per year. What is the water content of this dried sludge? What is the total daily sludge yield from the ABC Treatment Systems?

I hope that these questions will give you a clearer idea of some of the topics we hope to cover during the upcoming visit. I am looking forward to meeting you on August 28.

科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (24) (上)

* 科學提案建構 : 你科學提案的主題是什麼? 你的讀者可以明瞭科學提案的內容嗎?

* 科學問題 : 你的科學提案裡有你試著要解決或是想更進一步瞭解的問題嗎?

* 科學問題的量化 : 你要如何量化問題來讓你的讀者明白之前文獻研究所遇到的量化限制 ?

* 科學問題的中心 : 如果問題沒被解決或是充分瞭解, 這對科學提案的讀者會有多大的負面衝擊?

* 科學計劃需求 : 根據以上問題,最迫切的計劃需求是什麼?

科學英文科學問題描述

科學計劃建構 Commonly found in the RAW 264.7 cell, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pool plays a significant role in regulating the concentration of cellular calcium ion. Additionally, , ER calcium pool can facilitate protein translation, protein transfer, and protein embellishment. According to recent investigations, elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, can initiate apoptosis; in addition, [Ca2+]i increases before genome fragmentation and cell death. As well known, as a major intracellular reservoir of Ca2+ in nonmuscular cells, endoplasmic reticulum ER is essential for many cellular functions, including protein processing within ER. 科學計劃問題 However, while previous studies investigated how murine macrophage cell line regulates the signal pathway of ER calcium pool, exactly how the signal pathways of cellular TNF-α, NF-γB, and MAPK regulates the concentration of cellular calcium ion remains unclear. (NOTE : Add 2-4 sentences that describe characteristics of the problem or statistics that reflect its severity) 科學計劃問題的量化 For instance, cell ER pool investigations have not identified the signal pathways of TNF-α, NF-γB, and MAPK within an accuracy of 80%, thus making it impossible to determine how RAW 264.7 cell regulates the signal pathway. 科學計劃問題的中心 The inability to thoroughly understand the signal pathways of intracellular TNF-α, NF-γB, and MAPK makes it impossible to determine what role ER calicium pool and induced cytokine play in the RAW 264.7 cell. 科學計劃需求 Therefore, TNF-α and NF-κB of the RAW 264.7 cell must be analyzed by using cell culture methods, subsequently providing insight into how the cell signal pathway and immunity regulation of nitro oxide in cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium poolare related. TNF-α,NF-κB and MAPK must also be determined to be closely associated with the signal pathways of both human diseases such as cancer.

Source: 有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

密集課程 (柯泰德): Organizing Technical Research Papers(科技研究論文組織寫作)

密集課程 (柯泰德):Developing Copyediting Skills(英文編修訓練)

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

研究論文或技術文件編寫草稿指引 / 規劃你的下一個研究計劃 : 研究生英文投稿日報 10/26/2013

研究生英文投稿日報:

* 研究論文或技術文件編寫草稿指引

* 規劃你的下一個研究計劃 (PART A)

* 助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (286)

* 洽商技術合作之出國計畫書 (國外訪問)) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (3 of 5)

* 科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (23) (下)

Academic publishing news 學術出版新聞

研究論文或技術文件編寫草稿指引

* 舒適:選擇一個好的椅子且設置鍵盤在正確的高度,並調節光線。

* 開始最簡單的話題:由每段開頭把你想的先寫下來。

* 您的草稿迅速聚焦成幾段短語大綱。

* 不要停下來修改:設置一個定時器,開始寫一個小時或兩個的草稿不要停止。

* 當你來到一個需要更多研究的項目,此時可先跳到下一個項目。另外,不要擔心句子結構或拼寫。

* 嘗試無形的寫作:關閉電腦顯示器,這樣只可以在書面提綱上修改你剛才寫的。

* 在每段中間的部分停止寫作:你會發現當你再次開始寫作時很容易得出想法結論。

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 47 )

規劃你的下一個研究計劃 (PART A)

研究計劃規劃包括以下步驟:

* 分析你的觀眾

* 分析你的目標

* 對於你的研究主題產生想法

* 有關研究的附加信息

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 43 )

助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (286)
阿沃•帕特(愛沙尼亞語:Arvo Pärt,1935年9月11日-)出生於愛沙尼亞派德,是20世紀的愛沙尼亞作曲家。他的作品以合唱聖樂最為人所知。「神聖簡約主義」的主要作曲家之一。

洽商技術合作之出國計畫書 (國外訪問)) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (3 of 5)

技術對應的實例:

I am a research engineer in the Division of Chemical Engineering and Technology at Union Chemical Laboratories (UCL). UCL is a subsidiary of the Industrial Technology Research Institute, which is a non-profit organization that receives partial government funding. I am currently involved in a project aimed at establishing a laboratory that will examine phase equilibrium in VLE and VLLE, as well as study the characteristics of the different types of packings and distributors used in distillation columns.

Professor Liu from Virginia Institute of Technology recommended that we visit your renowned institute and find some time to discuss our needs with you, and learn of some of your own related experiences. Therefore, we hope to visit your laboratories in the latter part of August. Also, we are interested in purchasing some publications, especially the FRI Tray Design Handbook and the Design Practices Handbook, as well as various audiovisual materials.

We would greatly appreciate your advice regarding this proposed visit, or any suggestions as to our itinerary.
We hope that this visit will open doors for further cooperation between our two organizations. Thanks for your assistance.

科學英文假設描述 (23) (下)

* 科學目標 : 科學提案的目標 ?

* 達成目標的方法 : 你的計劃中達成目標的步驟?

* 希望的結果 : 希望的結果你希望達成的結果?

* 領域的貢獻 : 你的提案對相關科學領域的貢獻?

科學英文假設描述

科學計劃目標 Exactly what role macrophage secretion cytokine plays in the human immune system can be investigated. 達成目標的方法 To do so, NO can be examined, as found between different macrophage cells, RAW 264.7 and J774. An identical stimulator and inhibitor can then be inserted into RAW 264.7 and J774 murine macrophage cells, allowing RAW264.7 and J774 cells not only to produce the cytokine but also to induce apoptosis physiology. Moreover, NO content and cell apoptosis can be examined. Furthermore, RAW 264.7 and J774 cells can be treated with the LPS in different glucose concentration media. 希望的結果 As anticipated, analysis results can indicate that NO and other cytokines can locate many signal pathways of the macrophage. Additionally, the NO content and protein kinase C of cellular signal regulation can identify the RAW 264.7 or J774 cell morphology in different glucose concentration media. 領域的貢獻 Results in this study can demonstrate that, in addition to possibly inducing the cell apoptosis pathway, NO can promote the human immune system to achieve an appropriate balance between cytokines. (NOTE : Add 2-4 more sentences that describe more thoroughly how the proposed method contributes to a particular field or sector)

Source: 有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

密集課程 (柯泰德): Organizing Technical Research Papers(科技研究論文組織寫作)

密集課程 (柯泰德):Developing Copyediting Skills(英文編修訓練)

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

思考研究主題的技術 / 研究論文或技術文件的讀者分析: 研究生英文投稿日報 10/25/2013

研究生英文投稿日報:

* 思考研究主題的技術

* 研究論文或技術文件的讀者分析 (PART B)

* 助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (285)

* 洽商技術合作之出國計畫書 (國外訪問)) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (2 of 5)

* 科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (23) (上)

Academic publishing news 學術出版新聞

思考研究主題的技術

* 問六個新聞性的問題:誰,什麼,何時,何地,為何,以及如何

* 頭腦風暴:花15分鐘列出短語和你的主題問題

* 自由寫作:寫作沒有計劃或限制,而無需停止。一個短語或句子,可能會產生的一個重要思想。

* 與人交談:討論你的話題,可以幫助你找出你已經知道的想法,並產生新的思維。

* 集群:寫自己主要想法或在頁面中間放置主要問題,然後在它周圍寫第二級和第三級的想法。

* 分支:寫自己主要想法或在頁面頂部放置主要問題,然後在它下面寫第二級和第三級的想法。

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 43 )

研究論文或技術文件的讀者分析 (PART B)

* 為什麼讀者會如何使用您的研究論文或技術文件?

– 在何種環境下,讀者會使用你的研究論文或技術文件?

– 讀者在閱讀你的研究論文或技術文件後可使用的技術為何?

– 讀者在閱讀你的研究論文或技術文件後可完成的目標為何?

* 讀者閱讀你的研究論文或技術資料時,你想要他們知道? 做什麼?

* 你希望你的讀者在閱讀你的研究論文或技術文件前後要有什麼樣的信念和態度?

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 42 )

助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (285)
阿沃•帕特(愛沙尼亞語:Arvo Pärt,1935年9月11日-)出生於愛沙尼亞派德,是20世紀的愛沙尼亞作曲家。他的作品以合唱聖樂最為人所知。「神聖簡約主義」的主要作曲家之一。

洽商技術合作之出國計畫書 (國外訪問)) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (2 of 5)

技術對應的實例:

You may have already received my letter dated November 30, 1993 concerning the Waste Exchange Information Center(WEIC) here in Taiwan.

I am pleased to inform you of a long-term environmental project that is being undertaken at WEIC. This long-term program, ” the Industrial Waste Minimization Informational Service,” has been sponsored by the Industrial Development Bureau (IDB) for nearly three years. WEIC is a non-profit subsidiary of the Industrial Technology Research Insititute. The goal of the long-term program is to provide relevant information in the practice of industrial waste minimization. This is a service made available free of charge to all interested organizations.

Our major work includes the publication of a bimonthly waste minimization magazine, facilitation of waste exchange, and accumulation of commercialized waste minimization technologies. The results obtained from this program have helped expedite environmental protection efforts in Taiwan.

We recognize that ensuring continued success of this program necessitates that we observe and understand similar works in your country. Waste minimization is a global trend and your country already has much experience in this area.

I would like to arrange for a visit to your facilities. If this is agreeable with you, please contact me at your earliest convenience.

科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (23) (上)

* 科學提案建構 : 你科學提案的主題是什麼? 你的讀者可以明瞭科學提案的內容嗎?

* 科學問題 : 你的科學提案裡有你試著要解決或是想更進一步瞭解的問題嗎?

* 科學問題的量化 : 你要如何量化問題來讓你的讀者明白之前文獻研究所遇到的量化限制 ?

* 科學問題的中心 : 如果問題沒被解決或是充分瞭解, 這對科學提案的讀者會有多大的負面衝擊?

* 科學計劃需求 : 根據以上問題,最迫切的計劃需求是什麼?

科學英文科學問題描述

科學計劃建構 Cellular signal transduction includes many cell signal pathways, an area having received considerable research interest. The cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER )Ca2+ pool attempts to maintain an ion concentration balance of cellular calcium, which is an extremely important organelle. Among the calcium, an ion is cellular ER to proceed with the protein translation, protein translocation, folding and cellular ER translation protein to confirm ER Ca2+ pool plays a significant role. However, these functions should mainly cause the implementation of many resident ER Ca2+–binding proteins. The existence of many Ca2+-binding proteins in the ER is widely documented. Additionally, although passive in producing ER inside the high concentration, these proteins have an important physiological function. Additionally, the protein kinase C accepts some physiological functions after stimulation. Protein kinase C belongs to serine-threonine kinase about the message transduction The cell-related hormone or growth factor is used to proceed to the next step for activation of phospholipase C, thus producing DAG. Finally, protein kinase C is activated. 科學計劃問題 However, in addition to having many isoforms, PKC can differentiate between conventional PKCs (a, b1, b2, and g), novel PKCs (d, e,ηandθ), atypical PKCs (ζandλ/ι) . Previous research focused on ER and how to regulate the calcium concentration of the intracellular pathway. . Therefore, these PKC isoforms activate to some degree correlation. However, PKC cannot clearly identify the different types of cell lines that inhibit ER Ca2+ sequestering activity. PKC has also not been investigated with respect to the intracellular Ca2+ pool. 科學計劃問題的量化 Still, ER Ca2+ pool has not been investigated with respect to PKC isoforms in cell signal transduction, the functions of PKC and DNA transcription or translation as well as various intracellular pathways. Moreover, conventional cell culture methods can not thoroughly understand the cellular pathway of PKC, making the cellular apoptosis mechanism unclear as well. 科學計劃問題的中心 The inability to thoroughly understand protein kinase C and the cell signal pathway will negatively impact the physiological characteristics of PKC with respect to cellular life and death. 科學計劃需求 Therefore, exactly what role macrophage secretion cytokine plays in the human immune system must be investigated.

Source: 有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

密集課程 (柯泰德): Organizing Technical Research Papers(科技研究論文組織寫作)

密集課程 (柯泰德):Developing Copyediting Skills(英文編修訓練)

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

研究機構的行為準則是什麼? / 技術通信原理 : 研究生英文投稿日報 10/22/2013

研究生英文投稿日報:

* 研究機構的行為準則是什麼? (PART A)

* 技術通信原理 (PART A)

* 助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (282)

* 國內相關成果說明) (技術合作) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (2 of 3)

* 科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (22) (下)

Academic publishing news 學術出版新聞

研究機構的行為準則是什麼? (PART A)

* 研究機構行為守則遵守當地的法律和規訂,包括保護環境的法律。

* 研究機構行為守則避免歧視。

* 研究機構行為守則旨在保持一個安全和健康的工作場所。

* 研究組織行為守則尊重個人隱私。

* 研究機構行為守則避免利益衝突。

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 31 )

技術通信原理 (PART A)

* 遵守有關法律。

– 不要違反版權法。

– 不要違反商標法。

– 不要違反公司的產品保證。

– 遵守所有對產品責任的法律監管。

* 遵守專業操守

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 34)

助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (282)
阿沃•帕特(愛沙尼亞語:Arvo Pärt,1935年9月11日-)出生於愛沙尼亞派德,是20世紀的愛沙尼亞作曲家。他的作品以合唱聖樂最為人所知。「神聖簡約主義」的主要作曲家之一。

國內相關成果說明) (技術合作) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (2 of 3)

技術對應的實例:

Your fax dated March 7 was received with much appreciation. Regarding your information on item 4 of the fax, I would like to introduce waste exchange activities in Taiwan, R.O.C.

The waste exchange information services in Taiwan were first offered in 1988 (Please refer to the program of the Fifth North American Waste Exchange Conference). The majority of funding initially came from governmental agencies; the industrial sector contributed only a small portion. These information exchange services have continued to gain respect in the industrial sector.

However, local industry was cautious about waste recycling practices, since (a) the codification of environmental laws and regulations in Taiwan had not been fully developed, and (b) the related environmental enterprises (e.g., treatment/storage/disposal facilities and landfill sites) were not quite ready.

Because environmental regulations are increasingly stricter, the government has actively promoted industrial waste minimization; we expect the local industrial sector to undertake such practices to a larger extent in the near future.

The Taiwan Waste Exchange Center is particularly interested in acquiring more information about the various management system models of waste exchange, as well as the recycling regulations of other countries. Information regarding successful cases of waste exchange and recycling is also of priority concern.

Please feel free to let me know if I can be of further assistance.

科學英文假設描述 (22) (下)

* 科學目標 : 科學提案的目標 ?

* 達成目標的方法 : 你的計劃中達成目標的步驟?

* 希望的結果 : 希望的結果你希望達成的結果?

* 領域的貢獻 : 你的提案對相關科學領域的貢獻?

科學英文假設描述

科學計劃目標 The mechanism of gene expression in a cell can be elucidated owing to the importance of acquiring genes in a cell for embryo development. 達成目標的方法 To do so, the regulatory role of a gene in the upstream as promoter and enhancer can be analyzed by adopting molecular cloning methods. Next, the identified gene can be linked with a regulating gene to clarify how gene expression sites are regulated. 希望的結果 As anticipated, analysis results can clarify the mechanism of gene expression in cells and regulation of tissue-specificity genes. 領域的貢獻 Results of this study can provide a valuable reference for efforts to develop a therapeutic method of gene expression for patients with genetic defects. (NOTE : Add 2-4 more sentences that describe more thoroughly how the results contributes to a particular field or sector)

Source: 有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

密集課程 (柯泰德): Organizing Technical Research Papers(科技研究論文組織寫作)

密集課程 (柯泰德):Developing Copyediting Skills(英文編修訓練)

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

跨文化溝通倫理 / 研究機構如何提高自身的道德操守?: 研究生英文投稿日報 10/21/2013

研究生英文投稿日報:

* 跨文化溝通倫理

* 研究機構如何提高自身的道德操守? (PART B)

* 助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (281)

* 國內相關成果說明) (技術合作) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (1 of 3)

* 科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (22) (上)

Academic publishing news 學術出版新聞

跨文化溝通倫理

*研究人員注意在其他國家不同的道德信仰與文化和不同的法律。

*研究機構必須決定如何處理他國道德信仰,文化與你自己國家文化上衝突。

*“最低道德”是指研究組織有道德義務以不加強在他們的產品或服務可能存在的不同形式歧視的信息。

*研究機構沒有義務直接挑戰現行偏見。然而,組織積極反對歧視的行為令人欽佩。

*研究機構必須遵守他們所提供產品和服務國家聯邦和地區的法律。

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 33 )

研究機構如何提高自身的道德操守? (PART B)

*組織的行為準則中,“價值觀和道德聲明”著重於“知道什麼是正確的。做正確的事情。“

*組織的行為準則中,“誠信聲明”著重於尊重他人,尊嚴,禮貌,與世無爭的行為,尊重隱私和文化差異,以及員工有權利質問有關職業道德的棘手問題。

*組織的行為準則中,“創新聲明”著重於協作,非歧視性,多樣性,開放的溝通,成就的認可,並有專業的工作環境。
*組織的行為準則中,“承諾聲明” 著重於終身學習,責任,誠信,以及客戶滿意度。

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 29 )

助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (281)
阿沃•帕特(愛沙尼亞語:Arvo Pärt,1935年9月11日-)出生於愛沙尼亞派德,是20世紀的愛沙尼亞作曲家。他的作品以合唱聖樂最為人所知。「神聖簡約主義」的主要作曲家之一。

國內相關成果說明) (技術合作) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (1 of 3)

技術對應的實例:

Your fax, dated February 18, regarding your concern about waste exchange and recycling, was much appreciated. As per your request, I would like to briefly describe some of the waste exchange and recycling activities currently underway in Taiwan, R.O.C.

The ROC’s waste exchange and recycling program was adapted from the system used in the United States and was put into effect in January of 1988. Initial activities included the establishment of a computerized data file. A bimonthly publication, “Waste Exchange Information, was also founded. This publication not only makes public waste information provided by the industrial sector, but also features the abstracts of recent recycling technology developments in Taiwan. Enclosed please find a copy for your reference.

The industrial sector in Taiwan has undertaken many waste exchange projects in the last couple of years. However, some obstacles persist, owing to the fact that R.O.C. environmental laws and regulations are still under codification. Furthermore, the amount of personnel available to enforce such laws and regulations is insufficient. Promoting the concept that “waste exchange is one of the best choices for waste management” is of priority concern to us. Promotion of this concept will hopefully materialize into meaningful recycle/reuse and pollution abatement practices. Ms. Lin, the current project leader in this area, can provide you with further details.

I should also tell you that the EPA of the R.O.C. is currently promoting a “Cherish the Land” project that is aimed at establishing a recovery/treatment system for 17 types of wastes. At present, wastes dealt with are PET bottles and discarded tires. You can contact Mr. Lin, Director of the Fourth Division, the Bureau of Solid Waste Control, EPA, R.O.C. (1, Hsiang-Yang Road., Taipei) for further details.

Also, the Industrial Development Bureau of the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has been quite successful in assisting the industrial sector develop better waste minimization practices. Mr. Lee, Deputy Chief of the Seventh Division of the Industrial Development Bureau of the MOEA in Taipei, can clarify any questions you might have regarding these activities.

Please do not hesitate to contact me if I can be of any further assistance.

科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (22) (上)

* 科學提案建構 : 你科學提案的主題是什麼? 你的讀者可以明瞭科學提案的內容嗎?

* 科學問題 : 你的科學提案裡有你試著要解決或是想更進一步瞭解的問題嗎?

* 科學問題的量化 : 你要如何量化問題來讓你的讀者明白之前文獻研究所遇到的量化限制 ?

* 科學問題的中心 : 如果問題沒被解決或是充分瞭解, 這對科學提案的讀者會有多大的負面衝擊?

* 科學計劃需求 : 根據以上問題,最迫切的計劃需求是什麼?

科學英文科學問題描述

科學計劃建構 Gene expression requires that many proteins interact with regulated elements. However, modulation of gene expression has not been thoroughly investigated, making it impossible to determine the period and location of gene expression. 科學計劃問題However, expression of the same gene in a diverse cell can be regulated based on different expressions and (NOTE : Add 2-4 sentences that describe characteristics of the problem or statistics that reflect its severity) 科學計劃問題的量化 , thus, cannot be expressed 100%. 科學計劃問題的中心 The inability to thoroughly understand the mechanism of distinct gene expression makes it impossible to understand how this unique mechanism affects embryo development. 科學計劃需求 Therefore, the mechanism of gene expression in a cell must be elucidated owing to the importance of acquiring genes in a cell for embryo development.

Source: 有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

密集課程 (柯泰德): Organizing Technical Research Papers(科技研究論文組織寫作)

密集課程 (柯泰德):Developing Copyediting Skills(英文編修訓練)

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

合同法和責任法之間的區別是什麼?/ 如何保護你的商標 : 研究生英文投稿日報 10/18/2013

研究生英文投稿日報:

* 合同法和責任法之間的區別是什麼? (PART A)

* 如何保護你的商標 (PART B)

* 助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (278)

* 技術合作計畫書的架構 (技術合作) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (2 of 2)

* 科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (21) (下)

Academic publishing news 學術出版新聞

合同法和責任法之間的區別是什麼? (PART A)

* 合同法處理買賣雙方之間的協議。

* 合同法糾紛通常關注產品或服務是否符合製造商的聲明。

* 這些聲明可被寫成“express warranties”或“implied warranties”

* “Express warranty”是書面或口頭陳述產品或服務具有特定功能或可以執行特定功能。

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 27 )

如何保護你的商標 (PART B)

* 使用商標的項目作為一個形容詞,而不是作為一個名詞或動詞。

* 使用商標的產品通稱,如“Xerox®photocopier”或“LaserJet®printer”

* 不要使用名詞的複數形式或所有格形式。否則,你將減少該項目的獨特性,並鼓勵大眾認為長期通用。

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 27 )

助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (278)
阿沃•帕特(愛沙尼亞語:Arvo Pärt,1935年9月11日-)出生於愛沙尼亞派德,是20世紀的愛沙尼亞作曲家。他的作品以合唱聖樂最為人所知。「神聖簡約主義」的主要作曲家之一。

技術合作計畫書的架構 (技術合作) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (2 of 2)

技術對應的實例:

I should have informed you earlier that we have taken over responsibility for the XYZ Project from Dr. Chen as of last May.

We earnestly hope that your esteemed company and UCL/ITRI can work together to promote the application of XYZ technology treatment of hazardous materials. ITRI, a government-funded, non-profit organization, is the only national research institute that focuses on industrial technology. We have learned that XYZ works well the treatment of toxic and non-biodegradable wastes. Waste treatment has become the focus of increasingly stringent environmental ROC regulations. We recently performed a market survey that reveals that XYZ is one of the most appropriate treatment technologies for various hazardous wastes, and that XYZ has a large market potential in Taiwan. Your organization not only owns WAO technology but has also successfully commercialized it elsewhere. Therefore, UCL would like to invite you to participate in a strategy alliance to explore the Taiwan market for XYZ, as well as the market in the entire Asia-Pacific Region.

Moreover, we feel that the following tasks will need to be undertaken in the next two or three years:
1. First, we need to establish the capability for preliminary design of batch XYZ proceses, and recommend suitable facilities.
2. Second, we need to establish the capability for preliminary design of continuous WAO processes.
UCL possesses a two-liter batch WAO facility constructed by XYZ Engineers, Inc. (Model No.1234567890). We have already conducted a treatability study of landfill leachates and sizing wastewaters. We have also attempted to define the relationship between treatment effectiveness and such parameters as operating temperature, pressure, and retention time. We continue to conduct surveys of the sources and sizes of the wastes that can be appropriately treated by WAO. So far, the WAO market potential looks quite promising.

An alliance between UCL and ABC Corporation could work as follows: UCL could perform the feasibility studies and, with ABC assistance, undertake the preliminary design. The results obtained from our study can provide guidance for those companies which are considering whether to purchase WAO technology from your firm. Areas of concern With this in mind, we include below two sets of questions which require your clarification:
1. If our Autoclave bench facility cannot satisfactorily complete the above mentioned tasks, will additional equipment be required? How much will such equipment cost? And, given the nature of WAO technology promotion, can ABC help UCL obtain the requisite equipment? Will it be necessary to install a bench-scale continuous-type WAO?
2. In performing scale-up design from bench to pilot and/or full-scale design, what parameters, besides operating temperature, pressure, and retention time, are required?

We are looking forward to hearing from you. Please do not hesitate to contact me if any questions should arise.

科學英文假設描述 (21) (下)

* 科學目標 : 科學提案的目標 ?

* 達成目標的方法 : 你的計劃中達成目標的步驟?

* 希望的結果 : 希望的結果你希望達成的結果?

* 領域的貢獻 : 你的提案對相關科學領域的貢獻?

科學英文假設描述

科學計劃目標 A novel animal model can be developed that can be observed through macrophage in vivo experiments. 達成目標的方法 To do so, the regulatory role of a gene in the upstream as promoter and enhancer can be analyzed by adopting molecular cloning methods. The identified gene can then be linked with a regulating gene to clarify how gene expression sites are regulated. (NOTE: Add 2 sentences to describe the methodology more thoroughly) 希望的結果 As anticipated, the proposed animal model can observe macrophage mobility and life cycle, thus facilitating embryo development research. 領域的貢獻 Importantly, the proposed model is highly promising for use in related bio-medicine fields. (NOTE : Add 2-4 more sentences that describe more thoroughly how the proposed method contributes to a particular field or sector)

Source: 有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

密集課程 (柯泰德): Organizing Technical Research Papers(科技研究論文組織寫作)

密集課程 (柯泰德):Developing Copyediting Skills(英文編修訓練)

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

如何保護你的商標 / 商標和註冊商標之間的區別是什麼?: 研究生英文投稿日報 10/17/2013

研究生英文投稿日報:

* 如何保護你的商標 (PART A)

* 商標和註冊商標之間的區別是什麼? (PART B)

* 助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (277)

* 技術合作計畫書的架構 (技術合作) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (1 of 2)

* 科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (21) (上)

Academic publishing news 學術出版新聞

如何保護你的商標 (PART A)

* 區分來自其他材料的商標。

* 使用粗體,斜體,不同的字體或大小,或以不同的顏色來區分商標項目。

* 使用商標符號至少一次,通常在每個文件的名稱或標識首次出現時

– 在名稱或標識後使用適當的符號,後跟一個星號。

– 在頁面的底部,包括一份聲明中諸如以下內容:“*COKE is a registered trademark of the Coca-Cola Company.”

Technical Communication 10th Edition by Mike Markel (p. 27 )

商標和註冊商標之間的區別是什麼? (PART B)

* 註冊商標是單詞,短語,名稱或符號,且該公司已與美國專利和商標局註冊。

* 如果公司已擁有註冊商標,則該公司可以在商標項目後使用符號“®”。

* 獲得註冊商標可能需要數年,但給公司一個更比商標更有用的法律保護。

* 對公司的產品或服務, 所有員工都應準確地使用商標及註冊商標標記符號。

How to Write Technical Reports by Lutz and Heike Hering

助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (277)
阿沃•帕特(愛沙尼亞語:Arvo Pärt,1935年9月11日-)出生於愛沙尼亞派德,是20世紀的愛沙尼亞作曲家。他的作品以合唱聖樂最為人所知。「神聖簡約主義」的主要作曲家之一。

技術合作計畫書的架構 (技術合作) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (1 of 2)

技術對應的實例:

I am much obliged for the audiovisual briefing you sent us, which was received on 11/30/92

Regarding our working partner relationship for the promotion of XYZ treatment technology in Taiwan, we propose the following framework to ensure that the specific requirements involved in this project are as follows:

I hope this illustration is self-explanatory. I am looking forward to hearing your response to this proposed framework. Kindest regards.

科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (21) (上)

* 科學提案建構 : 你科學提案的主題是什麼? 你的讀者可以明瞭科學提案的內容嗎?

* 科學問題 : 你的科學提案裡有你試著要解決或是想更進一步瞭解的問題嗎?

* 科學問題的量化 : 你要如何量化問題來讓你的讀者明白之前文獻研究所遇到的量化限制 ?

* 科學問題的中心 : 如果問題沒被解決或是充分瞭解, 這對科學提案的讀者會有多大的負面衝擊?

* 科學計劃需求 : 根據以上問題,最迫切的計劃需求是什麼?

科學英文科學問題描述

科學計劃建構 PYK2, a non-receptor phosphorylation kinase, belongs to the focal adhesion kinase(FAK)family. 科學計劃問題 Although in vitro experiments have indicated that PYK2 is associated with macrophage mobility, adhesion and regulation, such an association has not been made through in vivo experiments. (NOTE : Add 2-4 sentences that describe characteristics of the problem or statistics that reflect its severity) 科學計劃問題的量化 For instance, PYK2 is deleted in the cell as a mouse macrophage can affect the phagcytosis function. 科學計劃問題的中心 The inability to observe its association through in vivo experiments makes its impossible to understand how the role of PYK2 in macrophage in vivo. 科學計劃需求 Therefore, a novel animal model must be developed that can be observed through macrophage in vivo experiments.

Source: 有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

密集課程 (柯泰德): Organizing Technical Research Papers(科技研究論文組織寫作)

密集課程 (柯泰德):Developing Copyediting Skills(英文編修訓練)

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德