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如何在你研究論文的引言部分引出讀者的興趣 (研究生英文編修出版投稿日報) 12/6/2015

Amur Tiger Panthera tigris altaica Eye 2112px edit

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 如何在你研究論文的引言部分引出讀者的興趣
* 學術英文投稿教學影片(678) “How to Choose a Research Topic”
* 避免過度使用It 及 There開頭句(精確英文寫作) (英文編修訓練) (9 / 11)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (138) (下)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

如何在你研究論文的引言部分引出讀者的興趣

六種方式可以吸引讀者興趣如下:

*第一種技術,使用強有力的單詞和短語來影響讀者的情緒,以創造一個充滿活力的感覺。

*第二種技術,描述在研究領域中目前的研究爭議。

*第三個技術, 問讀者的問題,使他們能夠在一個特定的主題發揮思想的積極作用。

*第四個技術,(好qualitatitve研究),研究中的一個或多個參與者提供了一個簡短描述性的敘述。

*第五個技術, 在引言第一個句子提出一個令人驚訝的事實。

*第六個技術, 強調主題的重要性。 這六項技術的例子可以在網上找到:
Inside Track to Writing Theses and Disserations by Neil Murray and David Beglar (p. 146) (scribd)

學術英文投稿教學影片(678) “How to Choose a Research Topic”
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
避免過度使用It 及 There開頭句(精確英文寫作) (英文編修訓練) (9 / 11)

使用It 及 There 開頭的句子容易使文章語多累贅及曖昧不清。除非It 指的是先前句子所提特定的名詞,否則完全的避免 It is 的句型。數個由It is 開頭的句型應去除掉,因為他們對句意並沒幫助。如果不能完全省略去除掉這種句型,則應更為精簡的描述全句。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

9. It is not necessary to train the network in all instances.

10. It is possible to configure Windows NT so that a password is required at the workstation.

11. There is an opportunity for an error to happen within the application.

12. There is a necessity for the program to be implemented by a knowledgeable systems manager.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* Làm sao để biến thói quen viết lách thành sở thích trong 7 bước đơn giản (Sắp xếp bài báo nghiên cứu cho các tạp chí quốc tế)
– Bài viết hay này sẽ giới thiệu những cách khiến viết lách trở thành một phần quan trọng trong cuộc sống.
– Khiến việc viết lạch trở thành công việc đầu tiên sau khi thức dậy: Khi bạn không có thời gian để suy nghĩ thì làm sao để bắt đầu câu việc viết lách.
– Viết lách trong thời gian ngắn: Làm sao để tập viết? Mỗi lần chỉ cần từ 5 đến 15 phút, bạn sẽ nhận ra được kết quả bất ngờ.
– Bắt đầu! Ngay lúc bắt đầu, bạn không nên dừng một phút nào mà tiếp tục viết, cho đến lúc hoàn thành.
* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (310): Conducting Academic Research
* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (83) (phần 2)
* Thực hiện (Ví dụ: Civil Engineering)
非正式工程英文技術報告 (138) (下)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

研讀以下工程計劃以辦別包含的科技論點:

介紹管理方案的目標Therefore, we developed an efficient mechanism, capable of optimizing utilization capacity and decreasing wasted upstream bandwidth. 管理方案方法論的細節描述 A dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithm was derived. Parameters that affect bandwidth allocation, e.g., RTT, SLA and queue report, were then identified. Next, each client’s report with respect to buffer utilization was modified. Additionally, the DBA algorithm was used to determine the efficient bandwidth length of each client. 管理方案主要成果總結 Our results indicated that the proposed DBA algorithm can achieve bandwidth utilization capacity of 80%.管理方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻 Importantly, the proposed algorithm can utilize upstream bandwidth efficiently, subsequently lowering costs. (NOTE : Add 2-3 more sentences that describe more thoroughly how the proposed method contributes to a particular field or sector)
有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

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為什麼論文被學術期刊拒絕的原因 (PART C) 研究生英文編修出版投稿日報 9/13/2015

PortoCovoJan07-5

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 為什麼論文被學術期刊拒絕的原因 (PART C)
* 學術英文投稿教學影片(594) Teaching Critical Thinking
* 去除修飾語所造成的問題 (明白寫作) 英文編修訓練 (1 / 12)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (95) (下)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

為什麼論文被學術期刊拒絕的原因 (PART C)

* 結構寫得不好:一個寫得不好的手稿無法讓讀者看到你的貢獻。讀者應該可以清楚地看到以下這種結構:

– 研究工作目標:提案的目標?

– 達成目標的方法擴展功能:你的計劃中達成目標的步驟?

– 希望的結果:你希望達成的結果?

– 領域的貢獻:你的研究提案對相關工作領域的貢獻?

*不精心研究:你的研究課題不徹底或不夠廣泛。

Source: Publishing Research Manuscripts by Serna Carpenter

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德 (ycrc.com.tw)

學術英文投稿教學影片(594) Teaching Critical Thinking
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
去除修飾語所造成的問題 (明白寫作) 英文編修訓練 (1 / 12)

修飾語必須放在所要修飾的字之旁。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

1. To succeed in the laboratory, diligence is essential due to the fact that many experiments are necessary.

2. Before submitting a graduate school application, the institution should be selected.

3. Pressing the start button prior to operations, the machine turned on.

4. When simulating the environment, the outcome yielded some surprising results.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* Trích dẫn ví dụ về sản phẩm / dịch vụ Thương mại (phần 1) Anh Viết tại nơi làm việc
– Giới thiệu những trọng tâm chính của một khu vực hoặc ngành công nghiệp
– Trích dẫn các ứng dụng cụ thể, bao gồm các ví dụ về thương mại hóa
* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (224): 10 Tips to Improve Your Reading Comprehension
* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (40) (phần 1)
* Nền tảng (Ví dụ: Information Techniology)
非正式工程英文技術報告 (95) (下)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

研讀以下工程計劃以辦別包含的科技論點:

介紹管理方案的目標 Therefore, we investigated exactly how taxi business models and the behavioral intention of passengers are related, as well as the mediatory effects of passengers perceived risk elaborated. 管理方案方法論的細節描述 A research design sample was drawn from MBA, EMBA, and IEMBA students. Behavioral intention and perceived risk among passengers were then evaluated using existing scales. Next, a factorial design was implemented based on research data accumulated. Additionally, accumulated data were analyzed using ANOVA of the multivariate technique. 管理方案主要成果總結Analysis results indicated that passengers tend to view a GPS-based taxi fleet the safest among other business models, because passengers perceive a GPS-based taxi fleet as most concerned with ensuring their physical safety. As for managerial implications of this study, among the variables that senior management can incorporate to foster a sense of security among passengers include using the corporate web site to promote the concern for safety and security, specifying the safety, service quality, and comfort in a taxicab, and training taxi drivers to convey the company’s vision and mission to the passengers. 管理方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻Importantly, this study provides a valuable reference for managers concerned with a comprehensive view of what risks are involved, as well as their likely consequences. (NOTE : Add 2-3 more sentences that describe more thoroughly how the proposed method contributes to a particular field or sector)

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

為什麼論文被學術期刊拒絕的原因 (PART B) 研究生英文編修出版投稿日報 9/12/2015

Austrolestes cingulatus03

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 為什麼論文被學術期刊拒絕的原因 (PART B)
* 學術英文投稿教學影片(593) How to Think Critically and Learn Anything
* 句子的結構須有一致性 (明白寫作) 英文編修訓練 (12/12)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (95) (上)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

為什麼論文被學術期刊拒絕的原因 (PART B)

* 結構寫得不好:一個寫得不好的手稿無法讓讀者看到你的貢獻。讀者應該可以清楚地看到以下這種結構:

– 研究工作提案建構:你研究工作提案的主題是什麼?你的讀者可以明了提案的內容嗎?

– 研究工作問題:你的提案裡有你試著要解決或是想更進一步了解的問題嗎?

– 問題的量化:你要如何量化的問題來讓你的讀者明白之前文獻研究所遇到的量化限制?

– 問題的中心:如果問題沒被解決或是充分了解,這對提案的讀者會有多大的負面衝擊?

Source: Publishing Research Manuscripts by Serna Carpenter

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德 (ycrc.com.tw)

學術英文投稿教學影片(593) How to Think Critically and Learn Anything
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
句子的結構須有一致性 (明白寫作) 英文編修訓練 (12/12)

科技英文寫作中,句子的建構必須有一致性。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

9. This section not only presents a numerical example, but also the effectiveness of the proposed GA-based procedure for cell formation problems is demonstrated.

10. The censored data contain less information than complete data and analysis is made more difficult to perform.

11. The proposed model not only performs diagnostic checking, but also the optimal factor/level combination is determined.

12. The procedure to determine the optimal factor/level combination in a multi-response problem is described as follows:

Step 1: Estimate the factor effects.

A. The factor effects are plotted and the main effects on MRSN are tabulated.

B. Plot the factor efforts and tabulate the main effects on the mean response for the nominal-the-best case.

Step 2: The optimal control factors and their levels are determined.

A. Find the control factor that significantly affects MRSN.

B. The optimum level for each control factor is determined.

Step 3: The optimal adjustment factors are determined.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* Kiểm tra các lỗi và thiếu sót bất cẩn và so sánh với lần đầu (9/12) (Chỉnh sửa cho rõ rang) (Đào tạo
chỉnh sửa trong viết văn bản tiếng anh)
* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (223): How to Break Down a Science Reading Comprehension Passage
* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (39) (phần 2)
* Thực hiện (Ví dụ: Information Techniology)
非正式工程英文技術報告 (95) (上)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 Our group has thoroughly explored the complexity of incorporating customer preferences in a metropolitan taxi service. 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境 Most metropolitan taxi services not only complement public transportation, but also function as a vital part of urban travel. The Ministry of Transportation (MOT) of the Republic of China cites individual taxis, cooperative associations, and taxi trades as the three business models in the Taiwan taxi industry. 介紹管理問題 Despite a recent focus on factors that may influence whether passengers take a taxicab, exactly how the taxi business model affects passenger behavioral intention remains unclear. For instance, according to MOT statistics, taxi trades in Taiwan rose from an annual rate of 42% in 2005 to 44% in 2007. Taiwan Taxi, a GPS-based taxi company, is a major taxi trade in Taiwan has implemented a GPS-based dispatching system from Singapore. In addition to benefiting the taxi driver and taxi trade firms, GPS technology also provides sense of security for passengers. The inability to understand how a specific taxi business model impacts passenger behavioral intention makes it impossible to determine not only how a taxi business model affects perceived safety, but also how perceived risk mediates the relation between the taxi business model and the behavioral intention of passengers. These unresolved issues make it extremely difficult for fleet line managers to draw up appropriate guide lines in order to comply with consumer preferences.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

為什麼論文被學術期刊拒絕的原因 (PART A) 研究生英文編修出版投稿日報 9/11/2015

Pardalotus with nesting material

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 為什麼論文被學術期刊拒絕的原因 (PART A)
* 學術英文投稿教學影片(592) Academic Writing: the Critical Evaluation Essay
* 句子的結構須有一致性 (明白寫作) 英文編修訓練 (11/12)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (94) (下)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

為什麼論文被學術期刊拒絕的原因 (PART A)

* 不適當的主題:你未能清楚閱讀“作者需知”或“期刊的幾個問題以了解什麼類型的研究是可以被接受的。

* 不是原創性的研究:你的研究無法增加領域新知識。

* 對理論太小的貢獻:你沒有選擇直接來自於研究問題的理論和方法。

* 研究設計差,你無法根據理論或文獻的研究方法來設計研究。你無法提供主要變數在操作上和概念上的定義。讓讀者無法複製你的研究。

* 結構寫得不好:一個寫得不好的手稿無法讓讀者看到你的貢獻。

Source: Publishing Research Manuscripts by Serna Carpenter

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德 (ycrc.com.tw)

學術英文投稿教學影片(592) Academic Writing: the Critical Evaluation Essay
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
句子的結構須有一致性 (明白寫作) 英文編修訓練 (11/12)

科技英文寫作中,句子的建構必須有一致性。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

5. Herein, TOPSIS is applied to reduce the computational complexity, satisfy Taguchi’s quality’s loss, and finding a performance measurement index for each trial.

6. The proposed procedure is employed for transformation of the relative importance of each response, to compute the quality loss, determination of the TOPSIS value, to select the optimal factor/level combination, and analysis of a confirmation experiment.

7. The engineer makes an adjustment of the processing parameters and that the shop floor layout is finalized.

8. The proposed mechanism is adaptive, flexible, efficient, and can be applied in a factory setting.

Answer
http://www.chineseowl.idv.tw/html/Exercise/Clarity/ex15(Ans).htm

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* Kiểm tra các lỗi và thiếu sót bất cẩn và so sánh với lần đầu (8/12) (Chỉnh sửa cho rõ rang) (Đào tạo
chỉnh sửa trong viết văn bản tiếng anh)
* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (222): SQ3R+R: A Recursive Reading Process
* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (39) (phần 1)
* Nền tảng (Ví dụ: Information Techniology)
非正式工程英文技術報告 (94) (下)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

研讀以下工程計劃以辦別包含的科技論點:

介紹管理方案的目標 Therefore, we elucidated the role of self-efficacy with respect to how end-user satisfaction, its antecedents, and consequences are related. 管理方案方法論的細節描述The perceptual data for this study were gathered via a self-administered questionnaire. Measurement and structural models were then estimated using Partial Least Squares (PLS). Next, the measurement model in PLS was evaluated in terms of internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminate validity. Ultimately, validity of the structural model and hypotheses were be verified by examining the path coefficients. 管理方案主要成果總結 According to our results, end-user self-efficacy significantly impacts how end-user satisfaction, its antecedents, and consequences are related. While shedding light on end-user satisfaction research, results of this study can significantly contributes to theoretical developments related to end-user satisfaction by identifying the underlying factors that affect end-user satisfaction, and their relative impacts. 管理方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻Our results further demonstrated that low self-efficacy, if not managed, lowers individual productivity. Managers can thus motivate a high self-efficacy end-user to be the mentor of low self-efficacy end user. Furthermore, as a highly effective means of increasing self-efficacy, computer training can allow managers to increase end-user self-efficacy by implementing training programs.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

如何與期刊評審合作讓你的投稿論文被接受 (PART C) 研究生英文編修出版投稿日報 9/6/2015

Anas-strepera-001

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 如何與期刊評審合作讓你的投稿論文被接受 (PART C)
* 學術英文投稿教學影片(587) Writing Research Proposals: Academic Writing for Business Students
* 句子的結構須有一致性 (明白寫作) 英文編修訓練 (6/12)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (92) (上)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

如何與期刊評審合作讓你的投稿論文被接受 (PART C)

* 為你的修訂文稿寫說明信。

* 說明信中應該解釋你如何遵循評審的建議。

* 發送給每個評審以下事項 :

– 一份研究論文的原始版本。這個可以提醒他你文件早期版本內容。

– 修訂版本的副本。確保已對每個評審的評論做出回應。

– 對評審的評論逐點回應。不要忘了感謝評審。

Source: Common Reasons Why Academic Papers Are Rejected by Journal Editors

學術英文投稿教學影片(587) Writing Research Proposals: Academic Writing for Business Students
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
句子的結構須有一致性 (明白寫作) 英文編修訓練 (6/12)

科技英文寫作中,句子的建構必須有一致性。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

9. The proposed optimization procedure is made up of the following steps:

Step 1: Transform the relative importance of each response into a fuzzy number.

Step 2: Crisp scores must be assigned to the selected conversion scale.

Step 3: The quality loss is computed.

Step 4: Determine the TOPSIS value for each trial.

Step 5: The optimal factor/level combination must be determined.

Step 6: The confirmation experiment is conducted.

10. Wee [11] made a further extension of the conventional model to allow for shortages and assuming that the demand rate would decrease exponentially.

11. The relative closeness computed in TOPSIS can be used to assess the performance measurement and optimizing multi-response problems in the Taguchi method.

12. The experiment focused on determination of how process parameters affect the silicon nitride deposition process and to satisfy the industrial requirements.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym

* Kiểm tra các lỗi và thiếu sót bất cẩn và so sánh với lần đầu (2/12) (Chỉnh sửa cho rõ rang) (Đào tạo
chỉnh sửa trong viết văn bản tiếng anh)

* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (214): Use SQ3R technique with an electronic book

* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (35) (phần 1)

* Nền tảng (Ví dụ: Information Technology)

非正式工程英文技術報告 (92) (上)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 Our recent project examined how to ensure the pumping performances of a turbomolecular pump (TMP). 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境 Increasingly larger substrate requirements have spurred advances in semiconductor manufacturing, explaining the increasing importance of the pumping performance of vacuum pumps in etching, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and physical vapor deposition (PVD) to satisfy ultraclean environment requirements. However, using oil-free backing pumps in combination with the TMP to satisfy ultraclean environment requirements is problematic. The TMP compound includes the addition of a turbodrag section to the conventional TMP stage in the same rotation shaft in order to ensure that the discharge pressure ranges between 7.5 and 15 Torr. Levi (1992) also pioneered the use of hybrid pumps, which uses a variety of impellers without increasing the number of stages on the same axis. Notably, the conventionally adopted TMP uses momentum transfers from high-speed rotating blades to the gas molecules for pumping gas. According to the direction of the pumped fluid to the movement of the moving wall, the TMP is perpendicular to the movement of the moving wall; otherwise, the molecular drag pump (MDP) is parallel. The MDP can operate in the 7.5x-3 Torr-7.5 x-2 Torr at a full pumping speed owing to a high compression ration in the viscous flow regime, which is infeasible for a molecular flow regime. 介紹管理問題 The CVD and etching equipment in the IC industry require superior discharge pressures from the atmosphere to a high-vacuum region. Among the many subsequent design types include those of Becker, Siegbahn, Holwek, and Gaede. Although these designs normally increase either the pumping speed or compression ratio, increasing the pumping speed and compression simultaneously (especially in higher discharge pressures) is problematic owing to the complex transition flow phenomena. Additionally, the processing pressure can not remain constant with a declining pumping performance. For instance, a typical TMP typically has many stages for optimizing the pumping speed and compression ratio, resulting in different compression ratios, especially the lower value for light gases. Moreover, the compression ratios are high at discharge pressures lower than 7.5x-3 Torr. However, the pumping speed obviously declines at higher discharge pressures. Ultimately, the pumping performances of TMP lower its efficiency as the distance of blades becomes comparable to the mean free path of gas molecules.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

如何與期刊評審合作讓你的投稿論文被接受 (PART B) 研究生英文編修出版投稿日報 9/5/2015

Catoptrophorus-semipalmatus-001

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 如何與期刊評審合作讓你的投稿論文被接受 (PART B)
* 學術英文投稿教學影片(586) Academic Writing: Plagiarism and Referencing
* 句子的結構須有一致性 (明白寫作) 英文編修訓練 (5/12)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (91) (下)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

如何與期刊評審合作讓你的投稿論文被接受 (PART B)

* 表明你正在做評審所要求的一切以讓你的研究論文被接受。
* 如果你不能滿足評審的要求,則也應感謝評審的建議,但解釋為什麼這些要求不可能被改變的原因。
* 不要攻擊評審。雖然他們可能對你的論文沒有好感,但他們花時間來閱讀你的文件。
* 不要說:

“評審的想法是壞的,我的想法是好的。

”應說評審有一個有趣的概念,但你提出的想法也不錯,且是基於特定的事實或研究所發現。

Source: Common Reasons Why Academic Papers Are Rejected by Journal Editors

學術英文投稿教學影片(586) Academic Writing: Plagiarism and Referencing
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
句子的結構須有一致性 (明白寫作) 英文編修訓練 (5/12)

科技英文寫作中,句子的建構必須有一致性。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

5. The standard procedure is for all intents and purposes inefficient, impractical, and creates problems.

6. Ullman [1989] not only used the Analysis of Means (ANOM) to study the mean response, but also a further extension of the ANOM was made to analyze dispersion effects.

7. The Taguchi Method deals with a one-dimensional problem and multi-dimensional problems are handled by TOPSIS.

8. The calculations are performed either to get a revised least squares fit or expected failure times are estimated for the censored values.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* Kiểm tra các lỗi và thiếu sót bất cẩn và so sánh với lần đầu (1/12) (Chỉnh sửa cho rõ rang) (Đào tạo
chỉnh sửa trong viết văn bản tiếng anh)
* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (213): 學習基礎方法 SQ3R (Learning based method)
* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (33) (phần 2)
* Thực hiện (Ví dụ: Information Technology)
非正式工程英文技術報告 (91) (下)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

研讀以下工程計劃以辦別包含的科技論點:

介紹管理方案的目標 Therefore, we developed an injection molding method that can accurately estimate shrinkage defects during product manufacturing by estimating the shrinkage rate of a product part and pre-compensation of the mold cavity via simulation, ultimately reducing shrinkage defects in products and streamlining the manufacturing process. 管理方案方法論的細節描述Shrinkage of wafer products was reduced based on mold shrinkage compensation. The shrinkage compensation rates for various materials were then determined via computer-aided engineering (CAE) simulation. Next, compensation dimensions of shrinkage and injection molding process parameters were optimized by performing CAE simulations repeatedly. Additionally, design was simplified and manufacturing time significantly lowered by using those compensation rates, which were stored in a database made available for engineers. 管理方案主要成果總結 Our results indicated that the proposed injection molding method can streamline product design by decreasing the shrinkage rate of defective products to less than 2%. 管理方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻 Importantly, the proposed method can ensure pre-compensation of the mold part, ultimately ensuring high precision in the manufacturing of exterior injection mold parts.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

如何與期刊評審合作讓你的投稿論文被接受 (PART A) 研究生英文編修出版投稿日報 9/4/2015

Sitta-carolinensis-001

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 如何與期刊評審合作讓你的投稿論文被接受 (PART A)
* 學術英文投稿教學影片(585) Academic Writing: Critical Thinking and Rhetorical Functions
* 句子的結構須有一致性 (明白寫作) 英文編修訓練 (4/12)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (91) (上)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

如何與期刊評審合作讓你的投稿論文被接受 (PART A)

* 請在三個月內重新提出修訂文件

* 請記住你有機會重新提交文件,是因為評審對你的論文有良好的印象。

* 跟有經驗的同事分享編輯的信和評審報告。他們可能有一些有益的建議。

* 當你修改完成後,你應該發送給每個評審以下事項:論文的副本及說明信。

* 儘可能詳盡的回答 *認真回應每個評審的意見。

* 首先感謝評審對他或她的審查。

* 對所有有關意見解釋所做的每個修訂回應。

Source: Common Reasons Why Academic Papers Are Rejected by Journal Editors

學術英文投稿教學影片(585) Academic Writing: Critical Thinking and Rhetorical Functions
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
句子的結構須有一致性 (明白寫作) 英文編修訓練 (4/12)

科技英文寫作中,句子的建構必須有一致性。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

1. Conventional approaches offer an explanation of this phenomenon and providing alternative strategies to solve the problem.

2. Their approach involves converting fuzzy data into crisp scores and to determine the ranking order of alternatives.

3. Crisp scores are assigned to the selected conversion scale (fuzzy number) for the purpose of applying a fuzzy scoring method and normalization of the scores.

4. The project concentrates mainly on reduction of the dependence between the sample mean and the sample standard deviation and that an efficient procedure capable of attaining the minimum quality loss is developed.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym

* Loại bỏ các vấn đề về chỉnh sửa (12/12)(Chỉnh sửa cho rõ rang) (Đào tạo chỉnh sửa trong viết văn bản
tiếng anh)

* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (212): Using & Crediting Sources in APA: Why We Cite Examples

* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (33) (phần 1)

* Nền tảng (Ví dụ: Information Technology)

非正式工程英文技術報告 (91) (上)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 Our working group has become increasingly intrigued with the increasing incidence of shrinkage defects when using injection molding technology during product manufacturing. 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境 Extensively adopted in the opto-electronics industry for producing polymer optical elements such as condenser lens, light pipe, lens array, and Fresnel lens for mobile devices, injection molding technology varies the temperature and pressure in a polymer-based mold to reduce the number of shrinkage defects in products. 介紹管理問題 The conventional means of optimizing process parameters is inaccurate owing to its reliance on the subjective experience of an operator to eliminate shrinkage defects in products. Shrinkage can vary based on the polymer material, geometrical configuration of the part, subsequently explaining the complexity of the shrinkage phenomenon and the difficulty in eliminating shrinkage faults. For instance, the conventional approach fails to reduce shrinkage defects in products to less than 2%. Injection molding is an extensively adopted polymer process in which molten polymer flows into a closed chamber for solidification. The final dimensions and geometrical configuration of the product is of priority concern in terms of manufacturing quality. Shrinkage refers to the deviation between the dimension of the cavity and final part. Therefore, as minimization of the shrinkage is anticipated, an operator can increase the holding pressure and mold temperature to eliminate shrinkage faults during the injection molding process. However the operator can not determine the appropriate values of process parameters immediately. Moreover, in addition to lacking a pre-compensated mold cavity, the conventional injection molding process also manufactures the mold first, making a high yield rate for products impossible and ultimately increasing fabrication costs. The inability to reduce shrinkage defects in products to less than 2% makes it impossible to comply with assembly specifications and increases overhead manufacturing costs.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

在科技期刊發表論文的技巧提示 (PART A) 研究生英文編修出版投稿日報 8/11/2014

Streichholz

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 在科技期刊發表論文的技巧提示 (PART A)
* 學術英文投稿教學影片 (561) Writing scientific articles (Part 2 of 18)
* 主詞及動詞必須前後呼應 (明白寫作) 英文編修訓練 (4/12)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (79) (上)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

在科技期刊發表論文的技巧提示 (PART A)

* 選擇一個良好的環境來發布你的研究成果:當選擇一個實驗室,看看這個實驗室研究小組的出版物紀錄。良好的出版物發表刋登記
錄意味著該實驗室主持人管理研究計劃的成功。

* 選擇一個研究實驗室會給你很多機會寫研究論文。在選擇一個研究實驗室時,應問像“博士後或研究所的學生是否有獲得寫第一篇
論文的機會?”,他們是否可以從實驗室主持人和其他同事得到寶貴的意見?“

* 在進行實驗時,總是想著如何進行寫研究論文。嘗試把您的實驗數據連接到該期刋讀者的興趣上。

* 選擇一個合適的期刋:調查各種期刊,看看哪一個適合你的結果最好。頂級期刊注重新奇性和意想不到的結果,而其他期刊可能會對關鍵流程的仔細分析更感興趣。

Source: Tips for Publishing in Scientific Journals (sciencecareers)

學術英文投稿教學影片 (561) Writing scientific articles (Part 2 of 18)
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
主詞及動詞必須前後呼應 (明白寫作) 英文編修訓練 (4/12)

如果主詞的單複數與動詞不能配合,不僅讀者感到困惑,同時句子的邏輯也會發生問題。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

1. Either gas delay time or mold temperatures (impacts , impact ) the surface tension.

2. My advisor and friend ( are , is ) Professor Wu.

3. Economics ( plays , play ) a major role in many business decisions.

4. Everybody ( try , tries ) to create and market a product during the course.

Answer
科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym

* Đảm bảo việc sử dụng các đại từ phải rõ ràng về ngữ nghĩa (12/12) (Chỉnh sửa cho rõ rang) (Đào tạo
chỉnh sửa trong viết văn bản tiếng anh)

* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (178): How to Publish in a Top Journal (5/11)

* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Y khoa đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (Ví dụ: ) (25) (phần 1)

* Nền tảng (Ví dụ: Medical technology)

非正式工程英文技術報告 (79) (上)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 Our project focused on current efforts to upgrade civil engineering professional skills in Taiwan. 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境 Civil engineering associations lack adequate management skills to remain competent in the modern era. 介紹管理問題 The scope of the civil engineer’s daily tasks is increasingly diminished, with less than 5% of all occupations belonging to civil engineering. (NOTE: Add 3-4 more sentences that describe characteristics of the problem or statistics that reflect its severity) Consequently, the prestige and value of the civil engineering profession is on the decline.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

成功的學術作者應有的習慣 (研究生英文編修出版投稿日報) 5/24/2015

Lake Shanhu pagodas at night

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 成功的學術作者應有的習慣
* 學術英文投稿教學影片 (490) Writing in the Sciences 6.2 – Stanford University Online
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym 23/5/2015:
* 精確寫作 (英文編修訓練) (1/6)
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (43) (上)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

成功的學術作者應有的習慣

* 當你第一次規劃寫作時即考慮最後的定稿,:寫作應該引導研究,而不是僅是行政工作。在計劃開始時建立科技論證並以論文研
究背景考慮以下因素:A)第一部分:背景: 一)工作提案建構;二)工作問題;三)問題的量化四)的問題的中心,B)第二部
分:行動: 一)工作目標;二)達成目標的方法 三)希望的結果; 四)領域的貢獻*小心選擇你的期刊:研究期刊出版的文章來
決定是否合適投稿。

* 不要延後發表數據:請不要為了取悅主審延後發表數據 – 包括您第一次提交的數據。

* 寫連帶信件:這讓你解釋你研究的重要性。*講故事,但避免過於誇張:表明您的調查結果和建議,但不誇張

* 對主審意見徹底作出回應:確保您對主審提出的每一個點回應。您有不同意的意見,請清楚地逐點反駁。

* 被拒絕時的良好回應:如果你的研究論文被拒絕,不要在同一期刋用不同題目再投稿。應試圖理解更大的結構性問題並以主審的
建議為基礎再改寫。

Source: Writing a paper: habits of successful authors (nature)

學術英文投稿教學影片 (490) Writing in the Sciences 6.2 – Stanford University Online
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym 23/5/2015

* Tóm tắt các kết quả của một dự án (Anh Viết tại nơi làm việc)

– Giới thiệu mục tiêu của dự án của bạn

– Mô tả các phương pháp cho dự án

– Nêu những kết quả chính của dự án

– Mô tả sự đóng góp chính của dự án cho một lĩnh vực cụ thể hoặc khu vực

* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (78): How can academics use Word Press to spread their research on social media?

* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (12) (phần 1)

* Nền tảng (Ví dụ: Biotechnology)

Viet OWL – Chỉnh sửa báo Khoa học đăng trên tạp chí Quốc tế

精確寫作 (英文編修訓練) (1/6)

忙碌的專家們是沒有時間去逐字的閱讀冗長的報告文件,因此很多科技作者的文稿被拒絕或延遲發表,就是因為他們無法精短的表達文章意念。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

1. All inputs are combined by engineers to create a product.

2. Three phases of analysis are included in their approach.

3. A statistical comparison is made of the proposed procedures with Taguchi’s two-step procedure.

4. A more efficient combination among the factor levels is achieved when the control factor is
continuous.

5. Factors causing saturation include temperature, volume and weight.

Answers

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

非正式工程英文技術報告 (43) (上)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 Our working group has become increasingly intrigued with how to utilize time division multiplexing passive optical network (TDM PON) more efficiently to lower packet delay and enhance jitter performance. 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境 Time division multiplexing passive optical network (TDM PON) is a promising solution to remove the bottleneck of bandwidth provisioning in current mass-deployed access networks. In TDM PON, traffic is carried by a single wavelength in each division, in which users share the bandwidth in time domain. 介紹管理問題 Given the increasing availability of bandwidth-intensive and high-quality services such as HDTV and VoIP, the capacity of current TDM systems will eventually become exhausted. Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) PON is a promising means of upgrading the capacity and performance of current TDM systems. However, given the importance of a competitive component price for end-users in order for PON to prevail, whether to widely deploy high-priced devices in the user houses and the distant field remains questionable. Whether to use an expensive DWDM transmitter for a single user is also unknown. Besides, for services requiring high reliability, e.g., emergency call, a protection scheme is desirable for the PON system.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

如何檢示學術期刊的文章 (研究生英文編修出版投稿日報) 5/21/2015

KyotoFushimiInariLarge

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 如何檢示學術期刊的文章
* 學術英文投稿教學影片 (487) Writing in the Sciences 5.5 – Stanford University Online
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym 20/5/2015
* 結合“精確寫作”及“明白寫作” (英文編修訓練) (4 / 6)
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (42) (下)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

如何檢示學術期刊的文章

* 重視文章,並試圖了解筆者寫的內容。

* 幫助筆者了解什麼是良好的內容並如何改進它,而不是負面地撕毀文章。

* 強調回饋的重要性,以提高期刋上文章質量。

* 提供一個平衡的積極回饋和建設性的批評和建議。

* 幫助作者了解理論和實踐對特定研究領域的貢獻

* 根據問題的重要性,組織您的評論

* 幫助作者了解相關研究課題中讀者的興趣。

* 幫助筆者了解研究結果對研究領域的重要性。

* 評估文章的理論論證,提出問題,比如“文章已經被充分和公平審查嗎?”“是缺少
相關的參考文獻嗎?“關鍵概念有被清楚地發展嗎?”“作者的理論論證有被符合邏輯
地架構嗎或有重要的問題沒有被解決嗎? “作者的理論和實踐對文獻明確的貢獻有被
清楚說明嗎?”

Source: The Editors Speak: What Makes a Good Journal Paper Review? (orgtheory.net)

學術英文投稿教學影片 (487) Writing in the Sciences 5.5 – Stanford University Online
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym 20/5/2015

* Đưa ra các động từ có ý nghĩa mạnh (11/12) (Chỉnh sửa một cách chính xác)

* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (75): What are the benefits of blogging (& how to handle
negative feedback

* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (10) (phần 2)

* Thực hiện (Ví dụ: Biotechnology)

Viet OWL – Chỉnh sửa báo Khoa học đăng trên tạp chí Quốc tế

結合“精確寫作”及“明白寫作” (英文編修訓練) (4 / 6)

科技英文寫作系列之四–“科技英文編修訓練手冊” 強調精確寫作,即如何去除寫作格式錯誤,使作者的意思更為精簡。以下的練習題幫助您複習精確寫作的一般通則,以期可以和本書的明白寫作呵成一氣。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

1. The message is received by the user that subscription to the on-line service must be made by the
account holder.

2. Confirmation of the data accuracy is required by the quality engineer so that customer
satisfaction is ensured.

3. The production manager receives information from headquarters that evaluation of the finished
products must be made by the quality inspector.

4. Adjustment of the parameters is unnecessary by the control engineer.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

非正式工程英文技術報告 (42) (下)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

研讀以下工程計劃以辦別包含的科技論點:

介紹管理方案的目標 Therefore, we developed a novel intelligent architecture, capable of increasing the efficiency of mobile commerce. The proposed architecture can integrate the applications of several environments, i.e. home, mini markets, shopping malls and banks. 管理方案方法論的細節描述 An intelligent info-filtering mechanism for tags reading was established. The status-management mechanism of daily commodities was then presented. Next, a secure settlement and payment mechanism were developed as well. Additionally, a practical info-interchange method was constructed. 管理方案主要成果總結 Our results indicated that the proposed architecture can integrate RFID and context awareness technologies in a ubiquitous environment to increase the efficiency of mobile commerce. In addition to contributing to research efforts in digital life, the proposed architecture can also enhance the potential of mobile commerce and increase profits from the digital life market by up to 30% of that from the entire 3C market. 管理方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻 Importantly, the proposed architecture can provide a valuable reference for business models, ultimately providing opportunities for 3C manufacturers to consume value-added products. (NOTE : Add 2-3 more sentences that describe more thoroughly how the proposed method contributes to a particular field or sector)

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source: