Author Archives: Ted Knoy (柯泰德)

博士生:早一點發表論文!!(研究生英文編修出版投稿日報) 12/31/2015

Cichorium intybus-alvesgaspar1

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 博士生:早一點發表論文!!
* 學術英文投稿教學影片(702) Scientific Literature Review: What it is and what it’s not.
* 明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (11 / 15)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (150) (下)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

博士生:早一點發表論文!!

* 和擁有更多投稿經驗的學者合著論文。

* 不要指望你的第一篇論文是一個傑作。

* 開始寫一個或兩個短的文章,投名聲較小但被公認的期刊。然後逐步目標於主要期刊。

* 如果論文被刊登表示你已經選擇了正確的領域。

* 用一個系列發表的手稿為基礎完成論文。

* 投稿前請專業人士針對你的寫作,內容和組織給予建議。

Source: Advice for Graduate Students (insidehighered)

學術英文投稿教學影片(702) Scientific Literature Review: What it is and what it’s not
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (11 / 15)

科技英文寫作者常常寫非所想,當然誤導了讀者,此時明白寫作就很重要,除了要把文章寫得精確以外,更要使讀者不誤解您的意思。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

1. Everyone are planning to attend the event.

2. The simulation program that was designed to identify consumer tastes are ready for
implementation.

3. War and Peace continue to be a widely read novel.

4. When alternative methods attempt to analyze unknown variables in an experiment, they have limitations.

5. The amount of computation on their method is less than the original MLE method, but it still requires much computational effort.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* Thể hiện số liệu trong một tờ rơi hội nghị học thuật:
– Đảm bảo thể hiện rõ trong tiêu đề tờ rơi những cống hiến trong lĩnh vực nghiên cứu và ý niệm mà bạn cần nói đến.
– Đưa kết quả của bạn lên mục đầu tiên, đảm bảo sự nổi bật của nó với những nội dung khác.
– Miêu tả đơn giản cách bạn có được các thông tin số liệu.
– Cho phép các bảng biểu số liệu hay hình ảnh miêu tả nội dung của cả tờ rơi, nên xóa bỏ tất cả chữ, khi thấy biểu số liệu liệu có thể làm người đọc nhìn vào là hiểu.
* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (334): Research Poster Design: 2) Layout
* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (95) (phần 2)
* Thực hiện (Ví dụ: Electrical Engineering)
非正式工程英文技術報告 (150) (下)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

研讀以下工程計劃以辦別包含的科技論點:

介紹管理方案的目標 Therefore, we developed a simulation model integrated into WSN hardware devices to create a more realistic observation. 管理方案方法論的細節描述 A software simulation platform was created. Certain functions from the simulation model were then provided to easily create, terminate and configure a simulated WSN node. Next, a mini kernel was implemented in the simulation model to provide an operating system that upper applications can operate. Additionally, basic WSN protocols, e.g., IEEE 802.15.4 PHY/MAC and Zigbee NWK/APP, were equipped, enabling implementation of unique algorithms based on the underlying protocols. Moreover, API drivers were supplied for programmers to manipulate the underlying hardware, similar to a RF transceiver. Finally, certain interfaces were provided to interact with and communicate among simulated WSN nodes and actual WSN hardware nodes. Those interfaces can send and receive data between simulated and/or practical WSN nodes. 管理方案主要成果總結 Our results indicated that the proposed simulation model can enable programmers to manipulate the hardware, as well as send or receive data among WSN nodes. The proposed model can also provide a kernel and basic WSN protocols for researchers to implement their proposed algorithms and protocols to resolve or enhance wireless sensor network issues, including multi-hops, multiple-access abilities, routing capabilities and self-organization. 管理方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻 Capable of providing a more realistic observation than purely simulated ones, the proposed simulation model can simplify efforts to deploy a large number of WSN nodes. Researchers can only distribute some practical WSN nodes to a small area and simulate the remaining area from the proposed simulation model to verify their novel algorithms or protocols. Doing so will enable researchers to concentrate on their major studies, not expend considerable time on deployments and configurations of WSN nodes.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

我應該寫期刊論文或學術會議論文? (研究生英文編修出版投稿日報) 12/30/2015

Trigonoceps occipitalis 1 Luc Viatour

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 我應該寫期刊論文或學術會議論文?
* 學術英文投稿教學影片(701) How to develop a research proposal
* 明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (10 / 15)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (150) (上)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞
我應該寫期刊論文或學術會議論文?

* 學術會議論文的優點:

– 會議論文允許你向觀眾展示作品,往往比通過期刊投稿審核過程更快

– 會議論文為同一主題感興趣的人提供了一個很好的交流機會。

– 會議論文給新的研究人員和資深研究學者接觸機會和提高知名度的機會。

– 會議論文讓研究員在投稿期刊前對其論文初稿得到一些意見反饋。

* 然而,會議論文是不能作為著名的期刊文章。

* 而且期刊文章的投稿審核過程會比會議論文更長。
Source: Journal articles vs. Conference proposals (protoscholar)

學術英文投稿教學影片(701) How to develop a research proposal
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (10 / 15)

科技英文寫作者常常寫非所想,當然誤導了讀者,此時明白寫作就很重要,除了要把文章寫得精確以外,更要使讀者不誤解您的意思。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

16. Turn on the machine and the valve should be closed.

17. The academic advisor asked the graduate student if the paper was completed and is it ready to send
to the journal for review.

18. The laboratory manager arranged the meeting and the discussion was led by him.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 10 lý do để theo đuổi công việc nghiên cứu sinh tiến sĩ (PART B)
– Bạn sẽ có nhiều cơ hội công việc hơn trong tương lai
– Bạn có hứng thú với một đề tài nghiên cứu
– Bạn hưởng thụ thời gian tự do và do bản thân tự quyết định
* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (333): Research poster design: 1) Planning
* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (94) (phần 2)
* Nền tảng (Ví dụ: Electrical Engineering)
非正式工程英文技術報告 (150) (上)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 Our most recent project focused on the excessive amount of time required to deploy and configure thousands of WSN nodes 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境As a novel network architecture, a wireless sensor network (WSN) represents the maturity of hardware and software technologies for electrical devices and enhanced wireless network capabilities. Its applications can be found in healthcare, the military, disaster support, environmental monitoring and factory management. 介紹管理問題 However, many WSN architecture-related issues have not been effectively addressed, including multi-hops, multiple-access abilities, routing capabilities, and self-organization. Numerous WSN nodes cooperating with each other are necessary to alleviate the above difficulties. For instance, monitoring a forested area requires deploying at least one thousand WSN nodes. Exactly how engineers configure those WSN nodes and distribute them over such a large area are challenging issues. Although capable of simulating all WSN nodes to manage and configure the WSN, a pure simulation model lacks authentic WSN behaviors. The ability to devise an WSN-based experimental platform to manage such a large number of WSN nodes will require an excessive amount of time in deploying and configuring thousands of WSN nodes. Such a predicament severely restricts WSN studies.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

研究生未來雇主類型 (研究生英文編修出版投稿日報) 12/29/2015

Viola tricolor LC0041

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 研究生未來雇主類型
* 學術英文投稿教學影片(700) The Perfect Proposal
* 明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (9 / 15)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (149) (下)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

研究生未來雇主類型

研究生未來雇主類型包括:

* 尋求具有特定技能員工的雇主。這些雇主提供在一個特定學科的研究或管理的相關位置。如果你想繼續研究相同主題,但希望在學術界以外工作,那麼你會喜歡這個雇主。

* 尋求一般技能員工的雇主。這些雇主都知道,研究所提供了額外的技能,這些雇主不要求你的工作侷限於研究主題。如果你想從你學校的研究課題轉變成為一個更具有戰略性或管理角色,你會喜歡這個雇主。

* 雇主不重視研究生的能力。這些雇主招聘畢業生,只是公司/機構政策的一部分。這些雇主會把高級職位給有多年工作經驗的人。如果你只是想在一個特定的行業開始你的職業生涯,那麼也許你會喜歡這個雇主。

* 重要的是,按照自己的職業生涯目標選擇不同類型雇主

* 總之,上述雇主或者重視研究學位和額外的技能和經驗,或者不認為研究生學位具有優先權。
Source: Life After Graduate School (Phd Talk)

明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (9 / 15)

科技英文寫作者常常寫非所想,當然誤導了讀者,此時明白寫作就很重要,除了要把文章寫得精確以外,更要使讀者不誤解您的意思。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

13. The input’s power is greater than the output.

14. The back propagation network can be used estimate the mapping function between the two variables.

15. The novel algorithm is more efficient in terms of computational cost.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 10 lý do để theo đuổi công việc nghiên cứu sinh tiến sĩ (PART A)
– Bạn có hy vọng về công việc nghiên cứu
– Bạn muốn trở thành một chuyên gia trong lĩnh vực của bạn
– Bạn thích môi trường học thuật
* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (332): The Research Essay – An Expression of Your Curiosity
* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (94) (phần 2)
* Thực hiện (Ví dụ: Industrial Management)
非正式工程英文技術報告 (149) (下)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

研讀以下工程計劃以辦別包含的科技論點:

介紹管理方案的目標 Therefore, we developed a total RF system module. 管理方案方法論的細節描述 Given that the antenna is a descreat component, an antenna designed in package (AiP) was used to achieve high integration. A shielding case was then integrated with the antenna to prevent the radiation field from affecting the single component on the RF circuit. 管理方案主要成果總結 According to our results, the proposed RF system can decrease overhead product costs, achieve high integration and avoid the interference between the radiation signal and RF circuit signal. 管理方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻 Importantly, the proposed module can contribute to efforts not only to satisfy bandwidth requirement of WLAN systems, but also to develop an antenna with EMC technology to shorten the tuning time. The total RF system module increases the functions of the conventional RF module. Additionally, the AiP technology developed in this project can increase the value of package companies, e.g., ASE and SPIL. The antenna with EMC technology can promote competitiveness of local antenna manufacturers as well, thus satisfying domestic wireless communication needs.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

給研究生的忠告 (研究生英文編修出版投稿日報) 12/28/2015

Colors of Altiplano Boliviano 4340m Bolivia Luca Galuzzi 2006

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
*給研究生的忠告
*學術英文投稿教學影片(699) Writing a compelling research proposal
*明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (8 / 15)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
*非正式工程英文技術報告 (149) (上)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

給研究生的忠告

* 明智地選擇你的主題。你不感興趣的主題是不會激發你的熱情,那麼你的研究課題會覺得好像是一種負擔。

* 為你未來的學生而寫,而不是為了取悅你現在的研究顧問或教師委員會。有興趣的讀者是把你看成在這個領域的專家。

* 請記住,不要指望別人的讚譽。別人不會時時刻刻花時間告訴你做的很好。

* 你的顧問負責對你提供意見,而不是你的父母。即使是世界上最好的顧問也無法提供你想要的足夠時間。

* 完美主義只會延誤你論文進度,因為你對內容不滿意,總是在修改內容。

* 寫作只是論文完成的一部份。與他人討論你的主題和閱讀相同領域的文獻也是很重要的, 討論和閱讀的目地在提供論文內容。

Source: 6 Easy-and Not So Easy-Pieces of Advice for Grad Students(chronicle)

學術英文投稿教學影片(699) Writing a compelling research proposal
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (8 / 15)

科技英文寫作者常常寫非所想,當然誤導了讀者,此時明白寫作就很重要,除了要把文章寫得精確以外,更要使讀者不誤解您的意思。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

9. The adjustment factors are found by selection of the appropriate levels and to vary the surrounding
factors.

10. Being a volatile compound, the chemist handled the mixture with extreme caution.

11. The new computer has many improved functions that reached the market last week.

12. The modem offered by the manufacturer with the latest functions has many advantages over older
models.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* Mười kĩ năng bắt đầu cho Nghiên cứu sinh tiến sĩ
– Cần chủ động tích cực
– Cần dẫn đầu
– Thiết lập phương hướng suy nghĩ
– Tìm sự giúp đỡ
* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (331): Critically Evaluating Resources for your Assignments and Research
* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (94) (phần 1)
* Nền tảng (Ví dụ: Industrial Management)
非正式工程英文技術報告 (149) (上)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 Our group has thoroughly explored the complexity of maintaining the market competitiveness of the the USB dangle card. 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境 Wireless local area network (WLAN) has become increasingly popular given its relatively low operational cost and convenience in providing flexible Internet access. Users attach a WLAN card to their computer in order to access the Internet. USB dangle card has a compact sie, light weight and large memory size, explaining why users prefer the USB dangle card over PCMCIA card. USB dangle card uses a chip antenna, planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA), or monopole antenna to deliver wireless data. 介紹管理問題 However, above antennas suffer from a prohibitively costly chip antenna and excessively large sized PIFA and monopole antenna. Besides, these antennas are descreat components for RF system. Restated, the total system requires an antenna space. For instance, PIFA requires approximately *** to satisfy WLAN bandwidth requirements. Additionally, RF system designers require additional time of normally one month to tune antenna characteristics. The conventionally adopted USB dangle card with the above-mentioned antenna has a large size, which is discouraging to customers purchasing wireless products. The additional time required to tune the characteristics of the antenna increases material and personnel costs, explaining why the USB dangle card is losing its competitiveness.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

研究資助申請失敗的原因 (研究生英文編修出版投稿日報) 12/27/2015

Saimiri sciureus-1 Luc Viatour

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
*,研究資助申請失敗的原因
*,學術英文投稿教學影片(698) Research Proposal Example
*,明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (7 / 15)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
*,非正式工程英文技術報告 (148) (下)
研究資助申請失敗的原因
* 研究理論不夠力:你研究項目中所使用的理論背景是什麼?研究方法的意義是什麼?研究方法的理論貢獻?如何拓寬理論研究方法的應用?
* 沒有研究方法:你將如何解決研究問題?你的方法過於籠統或含糊解決研究問題?你的研究方法足以解決研究問題?
* 聲明短語:避免太多的聲明短語,如“這是明顯的,…”或“很顯然,”這樣的短語往往是一種隱瞞事實方式,間接說明你在這方面的研究薄弱。 * 缺乏規劃:一個計劃是你將如何使用你的時間和金錢來解決研究問題。對於一個長期計劃,應分成不同的階段,並制定一個標準來評價。
* 在截止日期前提交研究資助申請提案: 如果等到最後一分鐘才提交提案,這樣你不會有足夠的時間來編修糾正英語用法和內容上的錯誤。
Source: Five ways to kill your grant application(theresearchwhisperer)
學術英文投稿教學影片(698) Research Proposal Example
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (7 / 15)

科技英文寫作者常常寫非所想,當然誤導了讀者,此時明白寫作就很重要,除了要把文章寫得精確以外,更要使讀者不誤解您的意思。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

5. After the board meeting was finished, they left the room.

6. It is preferred in standard methods to select a tentative model based on censored data.

7. This study focuses on examination of Taguchi’s two step procedure and demonstrating how the
wafer quality is improved in the deposition process.

8. The two step procedure attempts to identify those factors that significantly affect the signal-
to-noise (SN) ratio and finding the adjustment factors that markedly influence the mean.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* Làm thế nào để trả lời 10 câu hỏi khó khi được phỏng vấn (PART B)
– Mô tả lại một thời điểm mà kế hoạch của bạn không đạt được sự thống nhất của cả nhóm và
kết quả là gì?
– Nếu bạn có thể thay đổi 1 việc từ công việc trước đây bạn đã từng làm, vậy đó là việc gì?
– Hãy giải thích một vấn đề nào đó để đứa cháu 8 tuổi của bạn có thể hiểu được.
* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (330): How Stimulants Affect Academic Performance
* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (93) (phần 1)
* Thực hiện (Ví dụ: Electrical Engineering)
非正式工程英文技術報告 (148) (下)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

研讀以下工程計劃以辦別包含的科技論點:

介紹管理方案的目標 Therefore, we developed a novel method to determine whether hardware design complies with minimum product requirements and ensure that the hardware design contains no redundant hardware components. 管理方案方法論的細節描述 The hardware cycle was simulated accurately. SystemC is a C++ class library method to create a cycle-accurate model of hardware architecture, as well as interfaces of System On a Chip (SoC). Therefore, SystemC was adopted as the simulator language. For instance, if designers want to design hardware such as a MPEG4 decoder, the hardware can be simulated by writing the system using SystemC. Designers can then fee the MPEG4 data to the simulator and evaluate whether the computational power is sufficient to comply with product requirements, e.g., 30 frames per second. Next, if the computational power was sufficient, redundant hardware components were removed. If computational power was insufficient, some hardware components, e.g., digital signal processors (DSPs), were added to increase the computational power. The computational power was evaluated again until the minimum number of hardware components can be used to conform to product requirements. Additionally, the power consumption model was incorporated into a simulator to evaluate power consumption. 管理方案主要成果總結 Our results indicated that the proposed method can minimize hardware costs because minimal hardware components are used to comply with product requirements; hence, the success probability approaches 100%. Adding or removing hardware components in a simulator is easier than doing so in actual hardware, thus reducing the time needed to verify the completeness and performance of hardware significantly. Moreover, the added power consumption model can help designers to design higher power-saving hand-held devices. 管理方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻 Importantly, the proposed method can orient hardware designers on hardware functions, performance and power-consumption. Additionally, companies can minimize hardware overhead costs and reduce the time-to-market delivery period. Furthermore, the proposed method can contribute to efforts of hardware architecture researchers attempting to identify hardware architecture that performs optimally and saves power.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

評估你的學術就業教學理念的聲明 (PART C) 研究生英文編修出版投稿日報 12/26/2015

Formica high res

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 評估你的學術就業教學理念的聲明 (PART C)
* 學術英文投稿教學影片(697) Developing a research proposal
* 明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (6 / 15)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (148) (上)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

評估你的學術就業教學理念的聲明 (PART C)

評估的教學理念語句的語句可以在以下類別:

* 結構,修辭和語言:

– 你怎麼吸引讀者對你教學理念語句的興趣?

– 教學理念使用的語言是否適合該學科?

– 分析教學理念聲明的結構?

Source: Writing A Statement of Teaching Philosophy for the Academic Job Search : University of Michigan (mich.edu)

學術英文投稿教學影片(697) Developing a research proposal
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (6 / 15)

科技英文寫作者常常寫非所想,當然誤導了讀者,此時明白寫作就很重要,除了要把文章寫得精確以外,更要使讀者不誤解您的意思。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

1. Either the supply or consumers determines the market outcome.

2. The department chairman and professor are my current employer.

3. Telecommunications have been widely studied in recent years.

4. The optimization phase determines a feasible factor level combination to optimize the process
quality. This may be difficult for users without previous statistical training.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* Làm thế nào để trả lời 10 câu hỏi khó khi được phỏng vấn (PART A)
– Tại sao có sự khác biệt hoặc không liên tục trong quá trình làm việc của bạn?
– Bạn có thể nghĩ đến 1 vấn đề gần đây nhất mà sử dụng cách giải quyết cũ thì không giải quyết được?
– Trên đời này người không thích bạn nhất sẽ có thể nói gì về bạn?
* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (329): How Research in Academic Dishonesty Can Help Build Better Learning Environments
* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (93) (phần 1)
* Nền tảng (Ví dụ: Electrical Engineering)
http://owl.lhu.edu.vn/lam-the-nao-de-tra-loi-10-cau-hoi-kho-khi-duoc-phong-van-part-a/
非正式工程英文技術報告 (148) (上)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 Our recent effort addressed the increasing incidence of insufficient computational power and performance of hand-held devices owing to battery constraints 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境 Time to market delivery and reduction of overhead costs in the electronics industry have received increasing attention in recent years owing not only to stringent competition in audio and video hand-held devices, but also to the increasing number of companies in this market. For instance, this market niche includes various mp3, photo and MPEG4 players, allowing customers to base their decisions on price, appearance, storage capacity of FLASH or mini hard disk, audio or video quality, as well as functions and operational interfaces. A notable example is iPod. As a fascinating operational interface, the Apple Click Wheel possesses 20G or 30G large capacity that enables users to store thousands of mp3 files. 介紹管理問題 However, the conventional hardware design method depends only on experience of the designer. As mentioned above, time to market delivery and reduction of overhead costs are vital to product success or failure. Unfortunately, such requirements are normally exclusive if designers adopt the conventional method. Consequently, designers add redundant hardware components if hardware computational power is insufficient. Insufficient hardware computational power fails to satisfy the basic product requirements. Additionally, more functions required complicate hardware design, explaining the redundancy in hardware components. For instance, the likelihood of success in hardware design at ABC Company using the conventional method is roughly 50%. Therefore, ABC Company mandates that two teams process the same hardware design, resulting in at least one team experiencing success. Given the competition between the two teams to succeed, more hardware components are added to ensure sufficient hardware computational power in order to comply with product requirements. Such tendency increases hardware costs and power consumption. Power consumption is essential hand-held devices given that batteries are the power resource of such devices. An excessive amount of human resources expended in hardware design lowers the success probability below 100%. Additionally, success probability varies according to knowledge expertise of the designers. Given the inability to reduce high hardware costs, many redundant hardware components are added owing to the impossibility of ensuring sufficient computational power, ultimately resulting in the failure of hand-held devices owing to battery constraints.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

評估你的學術就業教學理念的聲明 (PART B) (研究生英文編修出版投稿日報) 12/25/2015

Euphorbia cyparissias quadrat

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 評估你的學術就業教學理念的聲明 (PART B)
* 學術英文投稿教學影片(696) How to write a Great Research Paper, and Get it Accepted by a Good Journal
* 明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (5 / 15)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (147) (下)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

評估你的學術就業教學理念的聲明 (PART B)

評估的教學理念語句的語句可以在以下類別:

* 目標評估(測量學生學習):

– 你怎麼知道你的目標已完成?

– 你用什麼樣的評估工具(例如,測試,文件,評價設計組合,期刊投稿),為什麼?

– 評估如何促進學生學習?

– 如何評估學科中的優先次序?

*創建一個具包容性的學習環境,使每個人都可以學習:

– 你自己和你學生身份(如種族,性別,階級),社會背景,課堂經驗,如何影響課堂學習?

– 你如何考慮到不同的學習風格?

– 你如何融入不同的觀點到你的教學?

Source: Writing A Statement of Teaching Philosophy for the Academic Job Search : University of Michigan (umich.edu)

學術英文投稿教學影片(696) How to write a Great Research Paper, and Get it Accepted by a Good Journal
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (5 / 15)

科技英文寫作者常常寫非所想,當然誤導了讀者,此時明白寫作就很重要,除了要把文章寫得精確以外,更要使讀者不誤解您的意思。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

16. When a student is preparing for an examination, you should get plenty of rest before the test.

17. The professor prefers using a calculator to estimate costs instead of using a pen because they can more easily add numbers.

18. The graduate student recorded the data and then writes a summary report.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* Làm thế nào kiểm tra một bài báo cáo khoa học định kỳ? (PART B)
– Căn cứ vào tính quan trọng của vấn đề, tổ chức các nhận xét của bạn.
– Giúp tác giả hiểu được mối tương quan giữa kết quả nghiên cứu và hứng thú của người đọc.
– Giúp người viết hiểu được tầm quan trọng của kết quả nghiên cứu đối với lĩnh vực nghiên cứu.
* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (328): Finding Scholarly Articles – Research Steps Series
* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (92) (phần 2)
* Thực hiện (Ví dụ: Industrial Management)
非正式工程英文技術報告 (147) (下)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

研讀以下工程計劃以辦別包含的科技論點:

介紹管理方案的目標 Therefore, we developed a predictive DBA method based on pseudo status report from ONTs to increase the DBA efficiency. The proposed method fully grants the excess bandwidth and grants each active ONT at least once in a W period to decrease the packet delay and increase the link throughput. 管理方案方法論的細節描述 The usage pattern for ONT bandwidth was monitored as pseudo status reports. In a period W, the allocated bandwidth and used bandwidth of each ONT were then compared. Next, several parameters were manipulated to control the trade-off between optimizing link throughput and packet delay. Additionally, the bandwidth in the next W period was predicted. Moreover, a bandwidth assignment map for the next W period was constructed based on these demand predictions. Furthermore, the DBA can be fine-tuned for various scenarios, e.g., FTTH vs. FTTC. 管理方案主要成果總結 According to our results, the predictive DBA method can elevate the PON efficiency. While the overall bandwidth utilization can exceed 80%, the packet delay can be reduced to less than 4 ms. In addition to low buffer requirements under 4 MB and a low packet loss ratio not exceeding 5%, the predictive DBA method also implies buffer requirements less than 4 MB, and an extremely low packet loss ratio under 5%., thus satisfying requirements of delay and packet loss sensitive services. Additionally, the predictive DBA method can simplify ONT design and reduce the risk of having inter-operability problems between OLTs and ONTs from different vendors. Moreover, the predictive DBA method can support not only dynamic bandwidth allocation, but also a static one that is used for fixed bandwidth traffic such as voice and leased line traffic such as voice and leased line traffic. Furthermore, the proposed method can contain several parameters that not only control the trade-off between throughput optimization and packet delay optimization, but also provide the ability to fine tune the DBA for various scenarios. The predictive DBA method can also be used accurately reflect a certain level of fairness among ONTs by determining the effective traffic rate and packet delay. 管理方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻 Importantly, the proposed predictive DBA method can be more efficient than SR-DBA with respect to increasing the PON efficiency in order to reduce the amount of equipment in PON systems The proposed method can also reduce overhead costs of the service providers implementing PON networks, ultimately making next generation network services less expensive and of high quality.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

評估你的學術就業教學理念的聲明 (PART A) (研究生英文編修出版投稿日報) 12/24/2015

Loppem kasteel 03

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 評估你的學術就業教學理念的聲明 (PART A)
* 學術英文投稿教學影片(695) Pitfalls of Academic Publishing What You Need to Know About Choosing a Journal
* 明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (4 / 15)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (147) (上)
評估你的學術就業教學理念的聲明 (PART A)

評估的教學理念語句的語句可以在以下類別:

* 為學生的學習目標:

– 什麼樣的知識,技能,態度是學生成功的重要元素?

– 你為學生準備什麼?

– 什麼是教學過程中面臨的主要挑戰?

* 制定目標(教學方法):

– 你用什麼教學方法?

– 這些方法如何有助於你的學生?

– 為什麼這些方法適合使用在你的學科?

Source: Writing A Statement of Teaching Philosophy for the Academic Job Search : University of Michigan (umich)

學術英文投稿教學影片(695) Pitfalls of Academic Publishing What You Need to Know About Choosing a Journal
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (4 / 15)

科技英文寫作者常常寫非所想,當然誤導了讀者,此時明白寫作就很重要,除了要把文章寫得精確以外,更要使讀者不誤解您的意思。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

13. The proposed procedure corrects dimensional distortion and errors better.

14. Our company prefers that organization more than their institute.

15. The new company is as competitive, if not more competitive than, existing ones.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* Làm thế nào kiểm tra một bài báo cáo khoa học định kỳ? (PART A)
– Chú ý đọc bài báo cáo, và cố gắng hiểu nôi dung tác giả đã viết.
– Giúp người viết hiểu rõ nội dung bài viết như thế nào mới hay và làm thế nào để cải thiện bài viết, chứ không phải là xé bỏ bài viết một cách tiêu cực.
– Nhấn mạnh tầm quan trọng của phản hồi trong việc nâng cao chất lượng bài viết.
* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (327): Mentoring and Nurturing Research Talents
* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (92) (phần 1)
* Nền tảng (Ví dụ: Industrial Management)
非正式工程英文技術報告 (147) (上)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 Our project focused on the deteriorating quality of several passive optical network (PN) related services such as in video and FTP. 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境 PNs play an increasingly significant role in fiber to the x networks, e.g., fiber to the home (FTTH) and fiber to the building (FTTB). A PON specified by G.983.1 comprises an optical line terminal (OLT) connected to multiple optical network terminals (ONTs) in a point-to-multi-point network. A PON network is characterized by its ability to share upstream bandwidth between OLT and ONTs. The bandwidth between OLT and ONTs. The OLT is responsible for allocating bandwidth to the ONTs on traffic contracts. The OLT should devise a dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) method to allocate bandwidth dynamically, thus responding effectively to the dynamic changes in traffic demand for vaious ONTs to the network resources efficiently. 介紹管理問題 However, the conventional DBA is based on queue-status reports (SR) sent by ONTs to OLT periodically. The grant scheduler at the OLT defines a granting cycle W. During each W period, the OLT solicits the queue-status reports from ONTs; the ONTs respond with queue-status reports; and, then, the grant scheduler processes these reports and assigns bandwidth for the next W period. The SR delay time, OLT processing time, and PON round-trip time determine the minimal response time. During this period, the queue status changes, often causing SR-DBA to fall below optimal accuracy. In addition to bandwidth efficiency, SR-DBA deployment heavily depends on interoperability between OLT and ONT systems. Specifically, the complexity of ONTs increases due to the higher real-time constraints and additional circuitry required to support queue-status reports. For instance, SR-DBA is inefficient under varying traffic conditions. For instance, the overall bandwidth utilization remains under 80% and the packet delay usually exceeds 4 ms. SR-DBA also implies high buffer requirements over 4 MB and a high packet loss ratio exceeding 5%. SR-DBA is inefficient for FTTH, creating a situation in which inefficient bandwidth utilization expends a considerable amount of investment in PON networks. Additional resources are necessary to achieve the required bandwidth. Additionally, delay-sensitive services such as voice or interactive services cannot comply with standard requirements under a high packet delay. Moreover, users can not wait for a response from the peer for a long delay time. High buffer requirements also imply high overhead costs for a service provider and, ultimately, high subscription charges for users. In sum, a high packet loss cannot satisfy the service level agreement and deteriorate the quality of several services such as in video and FTP.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

如何為學術著作出版選擇出版商 (研究生英文編修出版投稿日報) 12/23/2015

Honeybee landing on milkthistle02

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 如何為學術著作出版選擇出版商
* 學術英文投稿教學影片(694) How to use RSS feeds with academic journals and databases
* 明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (3 / 15)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (146) (下)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

如何為學術著作出版選擇出版商

* 請教同一領域已有出書經驗的其他人。

* 出版商是否會讓你的書由同行評審。

* 比較和你的書有類似風格/市場/主題的書。

* 評估出版相關一系列書籍的可能性。

* 嘗試和出席重要會議的出版商談。

* 嘗試找到一個具有國際影響力的出版商。

Source: How to get your academic book published – Part 1 – Choosing a Publisher (postgraduatetoolbox)

學術英文投稿教學影片(694) How to use RSS feeds with academic journals and databases
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (3 / 15)

科技英文寫作者常常寫非所想,當然誤導了讀者,此時明白寫作就很重要,除了要把文章寫得精確以外,更要使讀者不誤解您的意思。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

9. The notions can be simply modified by implementing the following procedure:

Select the levels that maximize SN.

Estimate the slope of the linear regression model.

The control factors and the adjustment factors must be identified.

Identify the control factors that significantly affect the variables.

The target must be adjusted as much as possible.

10. To simulate the program, precautions must be taken by the engineer.

11. As a graduate student, my academic advisor gave me much valuable advice.

12. Before examining all of the available options, the decision was made to initiate the plan.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 10 điều nên làm sau khi phỏng vấn (PART B)
‐ Gửi thư cho từng người phỏng vấn mình, thể hiện một cách mạnh mẽ thế mạnh của bản thân
‐ Trình bày rõ những yêu cầu của công ty, đồng thời nói rõ bản thân sẽ làm cách nào để đáp ứng
được những yêu cầu đó
‐ Không ngừng suy nghĩ và học hỏi về công ty
‐Giữ liên lạc với người có thể ảnh hưởng tới việc tuyển dụng, hoặc người biết người phỏng vấn
mình
* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (326): Introducing the Code of Best Practices in Fair
Use for Academic and Research Libraries – UCLA (Part Two)
* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (91) (phần 2)
* Thực hiện (Ví dụ: Electrical Engineering)
非正式工程英文技術報告 (146) (下)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

研讀以下工程計劃以辦別包含的科技論點:

介紹管理方案的目標 Therefore, we developed a novel open architecture for telecommunication purposes, as well as for construction with building blocks. 管理方案方法論的細節描述The communication architecture was separated by several functional blocks. Each functional block was then modularized. Next, each functional block was implemented through various providers. 管理方案主要成果總結 Our results indicate that, for a situation in which telecom equipment modules break down, the telecom services are not stopped when replacing equipment modules. Also, high availability can be achieved by serving with an open architecture, which is an emerging trend in the generation of telecom communications. 管理方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻 Via the proposed architecture, service providers can then update equipment by each module, without an update of all equipment. Such continuity makes users aware that a breakdown in telecom equipment has occurred. (NOTE : Add 2-3 more sentences that describe more thoroughly how the proposed method contributes to a particular field or sector)

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source:

博士論文寫作技巧 (研究生英文編修出版投稿日報) 12/22/2015

Giraffe Ithala KZN South Africa Luca Galuzzi 2004

研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
* 博士論文寫作技巧
* 學術英文投稿教學影片(693) Effective feedback & peer review in academic writing
* 明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (2 / 15)
* Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 非正式工程英文技術報告 (146) (上)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

博士論文寫作技巧

* 遵循邏輯安排論文章節。

* 照時間框架設置整理每個章節,讓你可以在最後期限前有紀律地完成論文。*確定每一章節的重點和內容要精確。

* 確保論文的統計數據要準確。確保數字和表格反映在論文的結果。

* 寫作風格要簡潔。論文內容的質比量重要。

* 按照您大學的規定準則援引參考文獻。

Source: Writing up (postgraduatetoolbox)

學術英文投稿教學影片(693) Effective feedback & peer review in academic writing
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
明白寫作 (英文編修訓練) (2 / 15)

科技英文寫作者常常寫非所想,當然誤導了讀者,此時明白寫作就很重要,除了要把文章寫得精確以外,更要使讀者不誤解您的意思。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

5. The graduate assistant conducted the experiment. Time and the amount of pressure applied to the conductive material were essential to success; however, it lasted too long.

6. Different criteria often conflict with each other, which implies that simultaneously optimizing different objectives is relatively difficult.

7. The Taguchi approach combines experimental design techniques with quality loss considerations and the average quadratic loss is minimized as well.

8. Engineers must either combine all inputs to create the output of a product or the parameter values must be set so that the product’s performance remains unaffected.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

Viết tiếng Anh học thuật Bảng tin hàng ngàym
* 10 điều nên làm sau khi phỏng vấn (PART A)
‐ Thể hiện thái độ của bạn vẫn còn hứng thú với công ty
‐ Chuẩn bị cho lần gặp mặt kế tiếp
‐ Đúng giờ đối với tất cả các cuộc hẹn
‐ Biết kiên nhẫn chờ đợi
* Video giảng dạy viết bài báo tiếng Anh (325): Introducing the Code of Best Practices in Fair
Use for Academic and Research Libraries – UCLA (Part One)
* Tổ chức lớp viết báo khoa học Kỹ thuật đăng trên tạp chí quốc tế (91) (phần 1)
* Nền tảng (Ví dụ: Electrical Engineering)
非正式工程英文技術報告 (146) (上)

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

* 簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 。經由一個句子描述工程機構對影響目標工程或客戶有關事項的關心程度。

* 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境:管理問題形成的工程環境背景描述。

* 介紹工程問題:工程問題的本質和對與其相關的特定部門或客戶的負面影響。

* 介紹工程方案的目標:工程機構對以上問題最合理的回應

* 工程方案方法論的細節描述:精確的方案步驟描述。

* 工程方案主要成果總結:工程方案對特定部門或客戶立即的利益。

* 工程方案對特定部門或領域的全面貢獻:研究結果和所提方法對工程機構以外更廣大讀者的牽涉。

強有力的工程英文技術報告包括以下要素:

簡要的描述工程方案所關心的事項 Our recent project examined how to decelerate the rate of obsolete hardware and software. 闡明特定部門或客戶所關心的工程環境 Network communication systems focus mainly on providing users with reliable and highly available telecom services. 介紹管理問題 However, conventional communication architecture is equipment-based. If equipment breaks down, telecom services should be curtailed to replace the telecom equipment. Also, the conventional architecture is proprietary for each other, while each equipment provider is not compatible with each other. For a shorter development schedule, a lower development cost and various network services, conventional architectures with proprietary hardware and software are outdated. Users subsequently spend much capital for hardware and software updated with non-reusable equipment and software. While proprietary architecture is updated, users spend capital for the newly updated proprietary architecture as well as purchase a new one. Much capital has been expended during this process. The proprietary architecture creates a gap between equipment providers. After proprietary architecture is updated, the older hardware and software have become obsolete to users.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

Source: