我如何為論文定義研究問題? / 我怎麼能保證我有一個成功的論文答辯? (研究生英文編修出版投稿日報) 11/8/2014

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研究生英文編修出版投稿日報:
*我如何為論文定義研究問題?
*我怎麼能保證我有一個成功的論文答辯? (PART A)
*學術英文投稿教學影片 (293) Using Wikipedia for Academic Research
*句子的結構須有一致性 (明白寫作) 英文編修訓練 (8/12)
*科學英文論文組織寫作 (41) : (第二部分:行動)
Academic publishing news 學術英文編修出版新聞

我如何為論文定義研究問題?(柯泰德英文編修翻譯)

* 一個研究問題包括以下幾部分組成:

– 必須有一個人或一組人有困難或問題。

– 必須有一些目標得以實現。如果一個人沒有知識欲求,不能有一個研究問題。

– 必須有一個希望達到研究目標的替代方法。

– 一位研究人員必須有一些選擇的替代方法。這意味著,研究必須回答可能替代方法的效率問題。

– 必須有選擇最適當研究附屬的環境。

Research Methodology by C. R. Kothari (p. 25)

我怎麼能保證我有一個成功的論文答辯?(柯泰德英文編修翻譯) (PART A)

* 你準備為論文答辯與您的委員在寫作過程中已有早期的互動?

* 你有沒有從你的論文委員會成員徵求意見,針對你的研究問題,測量儀器,統計程序和總體研究設計?

* 您是否澄清了他們的批評,哪些是主要的或次要的?

* 如果您的教師委員會成員在早期反饋時不同意給你的建議,你對他們所關注的重點有所了解?

* 你有沒有問過你的委員會成員事先有什麼疑問或類型的問題是他們將會要求在論文答辯中回答?

Guide to Writing Empirical Papers, Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by G. David Garson (p. 305)

學術英文投稿教學影片 (293) Using Wikipedia for Academic Research
觀看本學術英文投稿教學影片以加強英文寫作投稿能力
句子的結構須有一致性 (明白寫作) 英文編修訓練 (8/12)

科技英文寫作中,句子的建構必須有一致性。

請把練習題列印出來再以紅筆用標準編修註記修改:

5. The maximum likelihood method is not only frequently used by statisticians, but also those having limited statistical training find it difficult to comprehend.

6. Transforming the relative importance of each response into a fuzzy number consists of the following steps:
(a) Express the relative importance of each response by a linguistic term.
(b) A formal scale system is established that can convert linguistic terms into their corresponding fuzzy numbers.
(c) A conversion scale is found that matches all of the linguistic terms.

7. The numerical example concentrates mainly on illustration of the cases derived in the previous section and demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed model.

8. The most frequent issues encountered in multi-response problems are resolving the conflict among responses, dealing with a different measurement unit for each response, and to assign a set of weights to the current information about the relative response of each problem.

Answer

科技英文編修訓練手冊 柯泰德

科學英文論文組織寫作 (41) : (第二部分:行動)

以下為科學英文研究的基本科技論點:

(第二部分:行動)

研究目標 : 研究的目標 ?

達成目標的方法 : 你的計劃中達成目標的步驟?

希望的結果 : 你希望達成的結果?

領域的貢獻: 你的研究的貢獻?

(第二部分:行動)

研究目標 Based on the above, we should attempt to stabilize the inner/outer emulsion and reduce the droplet size by using a polymeric emulsifier, thus enhancing the stability of double emission.

達成目標的方法 To do so, W/O/W emulsions can be prepared using the two-step emulsification method. As the first step in emulsification, ordinary W/O emulsion can be provided with a hydrophobic polymeric emulsifier as the surfactant. W/O/W dispersion can then be provided, in which the W/O emulsion is mixed within an aqueous solution of hydrophilic polymeric emulsifier as the surfactant.

希望的結果 As anticipated, analysis results can indicate that small double emulsion droplets can be obtained with long-term stability, along with prolonged release of the active matter achieved as well.

領域的貢獻 Designed for use as a vaccine system, the emulsion droplets can produce a secondary immune response to the antigen after a single injection, thus enhancing the antibody response.

有效撰寫英文工作提案 柯泰德

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