*我怎麼能為即將到來的研究或技術方案寫一個可行性研究？ (PART B)
*我怎麼能寫一個有效的研究或方案建議書？ (PART B)
*學術英文投稿教學影片 (142) : Peer review (How to review a manuscript) Elsevier
*常用主動語氣 (精確英文寫作) 英文編修訓練 (3 / 6)
*醫療英文論文組織寫作 (3) : (第一部分:背景)
Academic publishing news 學術出版新聞
學術英文投稿教學影片 (142) : Peer review (How to review a manuscript) Elsevier
As the earth is pulled by both the gravitational forces of the sun and the moon, part of the ocean water will rise.
A portion of the ocean water rises as the gravitational forces of the sun and the moon pull the earth.
As advanced countries around the world endeavor for higher accuracy of geodesy, the role of OTL should definitely be taken into account when surveying in Taiwan.
Surveying in Taiwan should consider the role of OTL, especially given the global endeavor for higher accuracy in geodesy.
The diffusion procedure in the semiconductor wafer fabrication is very time consuming, and the performance in this area has a significant impact on the overall factory performance.
The extremely time-consuming diffusion procedure in semiconductor wafer fabrication adversely impacts factory performance.
Since 1994, China has not release the official data of sectoral greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory. The Pew Center on Global Climate Change (2007) projected that, in 2004, 42 percent of China’s GHG emissions was made up of electricity and heat, 21 percent of the emissions was from industry, while agriculture comprises 20 percent, households and services 9 percent, transportation 5 percent, and the remaining 3 percent was waste. The World Energy Outlook (WEO) (2007) predicted that China’s CO2 emission from transport sector will continue to grow from 7 percent in 2007 to 12 percent in 2030. In actuality, the CO2 emissions from the transport sector are undervalued in China since official statistics of the energy consumption by sector recognize the energy consumed in accordance with its original application instead of its end-use, therefore a gigantic amount of energy used for transport is classified as industry category instead of transport category. International Energy Agency (IEA) (2002) released that, in 2001, transport sector made up 41.8% of China’s oil use. According to IEA (2002), transport will comprise more than a quarter of the increase in global CO2 emissions between 2000 and 2030. IPCC (2007) claimed that the rapid development in China’s commercial area with China’s transportation policy could lead to a dramatic rise in atmospheric CO2 levels, which might exacerbate the impacts of climate changes.
Given the lack of Chinese governmental data on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory levels since 1994, the Pew Center on Global Climate Change (2007) estimated that electricity and heat accounted for 42% of GHG emissions in China in 1994, followed by industry (21%), agriculture (20%), household and services (9%), transportation (5%), and waste (3%). Additionally, the World Energy Outlook (WEO) (2007) forecasted a spike in CO2 emissions from the Chinese transportation sector, i.e. from 7% in 2007 to 12% in 2030. Official CO2 emissions from the transportation sector are undervalued since governmental statistics on energy consumption by sector determine energy consumption based on its original application rather than its end-use. A tremendous amount of energy consumed for transportation is classified as an industrial category rather than a transportation one. Moreover, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) (2002), the Chinese transportation sector accounted for 41.8% of fuel oil consumption in 2001. That report also forecasted that global CO2 emissions from the Chinese transportation sector will increase by more than 25% between 2000 and 2030. Furthermore, the IPCC (2007) cautioned that accelerated local commercialization with respect to governmental transportation policies could significantly increase atmospheric CO2 levels in China, possibly impacting climate changes adversely.
研究建構 : 你研究的主題是什麼? 你的讀者可以明瞭研究的內容嗎?
研究問題 : 你的研究裡有你試著要解決或是想更進一步瞭解的問題嗎?
研究問題的量化 : 你要如何量化問題來讓你的讀者明白之前文獻研究所遇到的量化限制?
研究問題的中心 : 如果問題沒被解決或是充分瞭解, 這對研究的讀者會有多大的負面衝擊?
研究建構 Heat shock protein 70 can eliminate waste material from damaged cells found in stroke patients.
研究問題 However, previous investigations induced mice to have heat shock protein 70 by using a hyperthermia procedure, subsequently decreasing the success rate of related experiments.
研究問題的量化 For instance, the accuracy rate of inducing heat shock protein 70 by using the hyperthermia procedure does not exceed 20%, accounting for the low success rate of related experiments.
研究問題的中心 The inability to increase the success rate of inducing mice to have heat shock protein 70 makes it impossible to understand how stroke and this protein are related.