* 有效地管理你的研究計劃 (PART A)
* 研究論文和技術文檔協同寫作的優點 (PART B)
* 助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (289)
* 討論主題說明 (國外訪問)) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (1 of 2)
* 科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (24) (上)
Academic publishing news 學術出版新聞
有效地管理你的研究計劃 (PART A)
研究論文和技術文檔協同寫作的優點 (PART B)
Thank you for allowing us to visit to ABC Corporation. Dr. Chang, Mr. Lin and myself would like to thank you in advance for meeting us at the Novotel (Europa BLVD 10, NL-1083 AD, Tel: 20-54111-23) at 9:00 on August 28.
As stated in our fax dated July 29, we would like to visit your LBR test unit and the ABC Treatment Plant-Apeldoorn, as well as discuss the details of our cooperative agreement. Specific questions so that their company can prepare in advance We thought that it would be a good idea to pose the following questions before the August 28 discussion, to allow you time to prepare your responses:
1. Since it is quite expensive, in Taiwan, to drill a 1225m deephole in Taiwan, would it be possible to instead drill a 600m deephole with an additional pressure of 60 Kg/cm on the ground surface to meet the 1225m vertical pressure?
2. The periodic operation for ABC Treatment Systems takes approximately 168/hrs per week (143 hrs for operation, 25 hrs for start-up, maintenance and clean-up). Can the operation period be extended? If not, is a batch operation performed each week?
3. The operating pressure of the ABC Treatment System ranges from 1250-1617 psi. We wonder how the operating pressure is determined?
4. What is the oxygen content of the discharged gas after treatment? Is this amount of oxygen worth recovering? What is the temperature of the steam generated by the cooling water or the heat exchanger? Is it worth recovering the heat?
5. Could ABC provide more detailed information on cost analysis for our plant’s future reference?
6. Was geology a concern when ABC designed the ABC Treatment System?
7. Because of the small piping and valving on the LBR, samples containing solids must be macerated and sieved to produce a particle size less than 0.32cm. How did you achieve that and how did you measure particle sizes less than 0.32 cm?
8. The ABC Treatment Plant generates 2280 tons of dried sludge per year. What is the water content of this dried sludge? What is the total daily sludge yield from the ABC Treatment Systems?
I hope that these questions will give you a clearer idea of some of the topics we hope to cover during the upcoming visit. I am looking forward to meeting you on August 28.
科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (24) (上)
* 科學提案建構 : 你科學提案的主題是什麼? 你的讀者可以明瞭科學提案的內容嗎?
* 科學問題 : 你的科學提案裡有你試著要解決或是想更進一步瞭解的問題嗎?
* 科學問題的量化 : 你要如何量化問題來讓你的讀者明白之前文獻研究所遇到的量化限制 ?
* 科學問題的中心 : 如果問題沒被解決或是充分瞭解, 這對科學提案的讀者會有多大的負面衝擊?
* 科學計劃需求 : 根據以上問題,最迫切的計劃需求是什麼?
科學計劃建構 Commonly found in the RAW 264.7 cell, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pool plays a significant role in regulating the concentration of cellular calcium ion. Additionally, , ER calcium pool can facilitate protein translation, protein transfer, and protein embellishment. According to recent investigations, elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, can initiate apoptosis; in addition, [Ca2+]i increases before genome fragmentation and cell death. As well known, as a major intracellular reservoir of Ca2+ in nonmuscular cells, endoplasmic reticulum ER is essential for many cellular functions, including protein processing within ER. 科學計劃問題 However, while previous studies investigated how murine macrophage cell line regulates the signal pathway of ER calcium pool, exactly how the signal pathways of cellular TNF-α, NF-γB, and MAPK regulates the concentration of cellular calcium ion remains unclear. (NOTE : Add 2-4 sentences that describe characteristics of the problem or statistics that reflect its severity) 科學計劃問題的量化 For instance, cell ER pool investigations have not identified the signal pathways of TNF-α, NF-γB, and MAPK within an accuracy of 80％, thus making it impossible to determine how RAW 264.7 cell regulates the signal pathway. 科學計劃問題的中心 The inability to thoroughly understand the signal pathways of intracellular TNF-α, NF-γB, and MAPK makes it impossible to determine what role ER calicium pool and induced cytokine play in the RAW 264.7 cell. 科學計劃需求 Therefore, TNF-α and NF-κB of the RAW 264.7 cell must be analyzed by using cell culture methods, subsequently providing insight into how the cell signal pathway and immunity regulation of nitro oxide in cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium poolare related. TNF-α,NF-κB and MAPK must also be determined to be closely associated with the signal pathways of both human diseases such as cancer.