* 研究論文或技術文件的讀者分析 (PART B)
* 助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (285)
* 洽商技術合作之出國計畫書 (國外訪問)) (有效撰寫專業英文電子郵件) (2 of 5)
* 科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (23) (上)
Academic publishing news 學術出版新聞
研究論文或技術文件的讀者分析 (PART B)
* 讀者閱讀你的研究論文或技術資料時，你想要他們知道? 做什麼？
You may have already received my letter dated November 30, 1993 concerning the Waste Exchange Information Center(WEIC) here in Taiwan.
I am pleased to inform you of a long-term environmental project that is being undertaken at WEIC. This long-term program, ” the Industrial Waste Minimization Informational Service,” has been sponsored by the Industrial Development Bureau (IDB) for nearly three years. WEIC is a non-profit subsidiary of the Industrial Technology Research Insititute. The goal of the long-term program is to provide relevant information in the practice of industrial waste minimization. This is a service made available free of charge to all interested organizations.
Our major work includes the publication of a bimonthly waste minimization magazine, facilitation of waste exchange, and accumulation of commercialized waste minimization technologies. The results obtained from this program have helped expedite environmental protection efforts in Taiwan.
We recognize that ensuring continued success of this program necessitates that we observe and understand similar works in your country. Waste minimization is a global trend and your country already has much experience in this area.
I would like to arrange for a visit to your facilities. If this is agreeable with you, please contact me at your earliest convenience.
科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (23) (上)
* 科學提案建構 : 你科學提案的主題是什麼? 你的讀者可以明瞭科學提案的內容嗎?
* 科學問題 : 你的科學提案裡有你試著要解決或是想更進一步瞭解的問題嗎?
* 科學問題的量化 : 你要如何量化問題來讓你的讀者明白之前文獻研究所遇到的量化限制 ?
* 科學問題的中心 : 如果問題沒被解決或是充分瞭解, 這對科學提案的讀者會有多大的負面衝擊?
* 科學計劃需求 : 根據以上問題,最迫切的計劃需求是什麼?
科學計劃建構 Cellular signal transduction includes many cell signal pathways, an area having received considerable research interest. The cell endoplasmic reticulum （ER ）Ca2+ pool attempts to maintain an ion concentration balance of cellular calcium, which is an extremely important organelle. Among the calcium, an ion is cellular ER to proceed with the protein translation, protein translocation, folding and cellular ER translation protein to confirm ER Ca2+ pool plays a significant role. However, these functions should mainly cause the implementation of many resident ER Ca2+–binding proteins. The existence of many Ca2+-binding proteins in the ER is widely documented. Additionally, although passive in producing ER inside the high concentration, these proteins have an important physiological function. Additionally, the protein kinase C accepts some physiological functions after stimulation. Protein kinase C belongs to serine-threonine kinase about the message transduction The cell-related hormone or growth factor is used to proceed to the next step for activation of phospholipase C, thus producing DAG. Finally, protein kinase C is activated. 科學計劃問題 However, in addition to having many isoforms, PKC can differentiate between conventional PKCs (a, b1, b2, and g), novel PKCs (d, e,ηandθ), atypical PKCs (ζandλ/ι) . Previous research focused on ER and how to regulate the calcium concentration of the intracellular pathway. . Therefore, these PKC isoforms activate to some degree correlation. However, PKC cannot clearly identify the different types of cell lines that inhibit ER Ca2+ sequestering activity. PKC has also not been investigated with respect to the intracellular Ca2+ pool. 科學計劃問題的量化 Still, ER Ca2+ pool has not been investigated with respect to PKC isoforms in cell signal transduction, the functions of PKC and DNA transcription or translation as well as various intracellular pathways. Moreover, conventional cell culture methods can not thoroughly understand the cellular pathway of PKC, making the cellular apoptosis mechanism unclear as well. 科學計劃問題的中心 The inability to thoroughly understand protein kinase C and the cell signal pathway will negatively impact the physiological characteristics of PKC with respect to cellular life and death. 科學計劃需求 Therefore, exactly what role macrophage secretion cytokine plays in the human immune system must be investigated.