* 論文使用路線圖概念檢查清單 (PART B)
* 研究論文大綱檢查清單 (PART D)
* 助研究思考及寫作的背景音樂 (229)
* 產品或服務研發 (有效撰寫行銷英文 ) (3 of 6)
* 科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (9) (上)
Academic publishing news 學術出版新聞
論文使用路線圖概念檢查清單 (PART B)
研究論文大綱檢查清單 (PART D)
Sir John Kenneth Tavener (1944年1月28日－），英国作曲家，以宗教精神深厚的合唱作品著称。塔文纳的主要作品基本上都是宗教性的合唱作品，其中无伴奏合唱尤为出色。他早期的风格受到斯特拉文斯基和梅西安的影响，但是后来他对自然音阶和宗教神秘主义的偏爱使他的风格逐渐向以阿沃•帕特为代表的神圣简约主义靠拢。他的音乐往往旋律优美感人，充满冥想性，并且常常有非西方音乐的因素混合其中。
Wound care treatment is crucial in nursing care, and involves the assessment of wound severity and appropriate treatment. Increasing life expectancies globally over the past three decades, a growing elderly population and the eradication or alleviation of many systemic diseases have all contributed to the urgent need to clinically treat patients with chronic illnesses, especially those with difficult to heal wounds. While striving to heal patients with wounds by adopting the latest therapeutic treatment strategies, medical personnel benefit not only patients, but also their relatives and society as a whole. Reducing wound healing times reduces fatality rates, inhibits disease growth during the early stages, alleviates the burden on relatives in terms of manpower and financial resources and reduces hospital expenditures, ultimately reducing already strained National Health Insurance resources. Statistics demonstrate the severity of this problem. In the United States alone, over 1 million patients seek treatment annually for chronic wounds, with treatment costs totaling several hundred million dollars. Expenses associated with length of hospital stay and the extent of wound care treatment are valuable indexes of the severity of the wound treatment problem. Thus, Taiwanese hospital administrators are increasingly emphasizing the need to reduce wound treatment associated costs in clinical practice. A recently developed wound management procedure, vacuum-assisted closure (VAC), applies negative pressure to a wound through a porous, open-cell foam that fills the wound cavity. The advantages include rapid wound healing, reduced pain, shorter hospital stays, lower medical costs and less need for nursing care. This procedure can also be applied to patients with multiple wounds, as well as to recurring wounds suffered by many elderly patients.
科學英文問題描述 / 假設描述 (9) (上)
* 科學提案建構 : 你科學提案的主題是什麼? 你的讀者可以明瞭科學提案的內容嗎?
* 科學問題 : 你的科學提案裡有你試著要解決或是想更進一步瞭解的問題嗎?
* 科學問題的量化 : 你要如何量化問題來讓你的讀者明白之前文獻研究所遇到的量化限制 ?
* 科學問題的中心 : 如果問題沒被解決或是充分瞭解, 這對科學提案的讀者會有多大的負面衝擊?
* 科學計劃需求 : 根據以上問題,最迫切的計劃需求是什麼?
科學計劃建構 As a disease commonly spread through sexual transmission, syphilis also occurs through blood transfusions, exchange of body fluid or through a mother’s placenta to the fetus. Notably, treponema pallidum is the most common causative agent of syphilis. 科學計劃問題 A typical diagnosis method involves performing initial screening nontreponemal tests, e.g., venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests. As the basic syphilis screen order, VDRL and RPR tests use a patient’s serum for testing. A situation in which a patient has monocyte injection or malaria infection can often interfere with the test results, not only yield a probability of false positive of round 20%, but also cause a high degree of non-specificity. Another typical diagnosis method involves performing a confirmation test, commonly referred to as treponemal tests, which include treponema pallidum hacmagglutination (TPHA) and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS). However, these methods are expensive and inefficient. 科學計劃問題的量化 For instance, conventional determination methods easily miss a patient’s latent phase, and have a poor diagnosis accuracy of only around 80% during examination. 科學計劃問題的中心 The inability to resolve the limitations of conventional methods, i.e. the high non-specificity, expensiveness and inefficiency of VDRL, RPR, TPHA, and FTA-ABS, will require not only more personnel to diagnose a disease during laboratory examination, but also a higher cost per examination. A disease in patients in the latent phase is difficult to detect and will likely to spread. 科學計劃需求 Therefore, a syphilis diagnostic kit must be developed, capable of detecting in only one step the anti-treponema specific antibodies in a patient’s serum or plasma binding to the antigen.